Anatomy Lab HP // Physiology Lecture HP // Student Resources HP
Physiology Unit One (C1-C11)
“Nothing in Biology makes sense except in the light of evolution” --- Theodosius Dobzhansky
Unit One Lecture Objectives // Dictionary of Pronunciation // Medical Dictionary

Chapter 1
Major Themes of Anatomy and Physiology

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
   
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Major Themes in Anatomy and Physiology
    * Homeostasis
       
    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C1: Study Guide
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Grading Assignments (Bonus Pts)
    * What is Science?
    * Cell Theory
    * Homeostasis
    * Where Do Ideas Come From -- Aoife McLysaght // Ted Talk 15 min
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Not Required But Highly Recommended
   
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Positive vs Negative Feedback Video 2
  > * Homeostasis
    * Homeostasis
  > * Reflex Arc
  > * The best way to learn anything. by Dr. Richard Feynman, theoretical physics and Noble Prize Winner
  >>> * Metric System Basics (w answer key) //// Temperature Conversion Worksheet
   
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Audio Review (Organization of the Body)
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
  >> * Evolution: This film explores what human hands, vision, and brains reveal about our evolution from ancient primate ancestors. Our primate progenitors had bodies a lot like those of modern monkeys and spent tens of millions of years living in trees. From them we inherited our versatile hands, amazing vision, and capable brains—but also some less beneficial traits, including our bad backs and terrible sense of smell. (60 min // HHMI)
    * How to Calculate the Number of Cells in the Human Body
   
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Introduction to Cell and Virus Structure - Size Matters
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Related Topics // Not Required
    * The Origins of Tetrapods // Tetrapods Are Linked to Humans and they Evolved From Fish!
    * Evolution In Need of an Update
    * Evolution, Natural Selection, and Adaptation
    * The Timeline of Life (Taken From Wiki)
    * Tarsier: Small Primate Unchanged in 45 Million Years
    * Tarsier II
  > * The History of Evolution from a Cell to Humans
    * The Human Family Tree
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Understanding Evolution: This site was created by the University of California Museum of Paleontology with support provided by the National Science Foundation (grant no. 0096613) and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute (grant no. 51003439).
 
   
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The Tree of Life Project (Reference Web Site) /// This is a must visit Web Site!!!
    * Monkeys Doing What Monkeys Do (Inter-species curiosity).
  >>> * Dr. Richard Feynman was one of America's greatest theoretical physics. In this video, he talks about "taking the world from another point of view". Even before he completed his graduate studies, Dr. Feynman was asked to be part of theLos Alamos team that developed the atomic bomb. He later won the Nobel Prize for his original work in theoretical physics. Feynman is celebrated as one of Americ's most brilliant and original thinkers in theoretical physics. Dr. Feynman has taught generations of scientist to seek new ways to think about the unknowable. // "Richard Feynman, the genius that he was, had the singular ability to realize that perspectives and points of view give us a window into all of the alternate possibilities that may exist. This is the definition of genius." (video 40 min)
       

Chapter 2
Chemistry of Life

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
   
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    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C2: Learning Outcomes
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List C2
       
    Team Grading Assignments (Bonus Pts)
    * The Physics of Life: How Water Folds Proteins / by Dr. Sylvia McLain (Royal Institute)
    * Nanotechnology: The High Tech Revolution - with Dave Blank
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Not Required But Highly Recommended
    * Audio Review / Chemical Basis of Life
  > * How Much of an Atom Is Empty Space ?
  > * Timeline of Atomic Models: Dalton's Model, Thompson's Model, Rutherford's Model, Bohr's Model, Quantum Model
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  > * Atom Structure: Protons, Electrons, and Neutrons
    * Understanding Atom and Their Electrons?
       
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  > * The Structure of an Atom Meets the Periodic Table (Part 2)
   
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Mendeleev: The Father of the Periodic Table
   
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Interactive Periodic Table of Elements (Los Alamos National Laboratory)
       
   
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What Does An Atom Really Look Like?
    * What is a Cathode Ray Tube?
    * J.J. Thompson's Cathode Ray Tube Experiment (The Discovery of the Electron) /// Thompson's Model of the Atom
    * Rutherford's Gold Foil Experiment - Rutherord's Atomic Model
  > * Borh's Model of the Atom
    * Milliken's Oil Drop Experiment (How the Charge of an Electron Was Determined)
   
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An Explaination of Neutrinos
       
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  > ** How Oxygen, Nitrogen, and Carbon Make Covalent Bonds
  > ** Oxidation-Reduction Reaction
       
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Hydrogen Bonding (1)
   
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Hydrogen Bonding (2)
   
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Biochemical Pathways
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Enzyme Action
   
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Enzymes
   
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    * Know Your Molecules
       
    * A Brief History of Quantum Mechanics // Sean Carroll
       
    * Beta Decay - Beta decay and positron decay explains how an atom with too many neutrons or too many protons may change their nucleus to become a more stable atom. So it is possible for carbon(C6) to "transmute" into boron (B5) or nitrogen (N7). This was the dream of the alchemist, however. It is not possible to turn carbon into gold!
    * Positron Decay
       
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Michael Faraday - In the 1800's Faraday was the greatest experimental physicist. Faraday discovered electromagnetic fields,electromagnetic induction, refrigeration, benzene, and other important discoveries. Farada's work led to the electric motor and air conditioning which we use today! Furthermore, Faraday was the first scientist to think and recognize "fields". This idea is currently on the cutting edge of theoretical physic study today. It is said that Albert Einstein had only two photographs in this study. One photo was Michael Faraday.
   
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Michael Faraday: The Art of Genius
    * Demonstration of a Faraday Motor
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * What are the four forces of the universe? - These forces formed as a result of the "big bang". These same forces also resulted in atoms, chemistry and life itself. (Illustration Only ////// Video -> The Four Natural Forces: Gravity, Weak Nuclear Force, Electromagnetic, and Strong Nuclear Force. (Kahn Academy).
       
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All About Chemistry: Annenberg Learner's mission is to "Advance Excellent Teaching in American Schools." Join with experts to observe chemistry in action and learn the laws and principles of this dynamic field. Computer technology and special effects place students in a front-row seat to observe many processes, even those that are too dangerous or impractical to experience directly. There are 26 videos in this series.
 
       
    * Physics for the 21st Century: Explore the frontiers of physics research with the scientists on the front lines in this 11-unit course in modern phsics for high school physics teachers, undergraduate students, and science enthusiasts.
       
      What is beyond chemistry? Quantum Physics // The Standard Model of Particle Physics // Fields
  > * An Introduction to the Standard Model (graphic with text)
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The Standard Model: The standard model is the name given in the 1970s to a theory of fundamental particles and how they interact. It incorporated all that was known about subatomic particles at the time and predicted the existence of additional particles as well. When this video was made, a yet found but predicted sub-atomic particle called the Higgs was still not discovered. The Higgs particle was discovered 50 years after it was predicted in 2012!.
 
    * How the Higg's Particle Completed the Standard Model by Harry Cliff at Ri,
    * CERN: Standard Model of Particle Physics.
    * Quantum Fields: Fields Are the Real Building Blocks of the Universe - with David Tong (60 min.)
    * Standard Model Outlined
    * TED Talk: Quantum Physics For Seven Year Olds by Dominic Walliman. /// or How to Teach and Learn Science!
    * String Theory Explained
    * Quantum Biology and the Hidden Nature of Nature (1:35)
      Quantum Biology: An Introduction to the Far Edge of Biology!.
    * Everything and Nothing: What is nothing? by Jim Al Khalili
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * The Periodic Table (Wiki)
       
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The Year of Albert Einstein --- In 1905, Einstein was 26 years old. He received his PhD in physics but could not find a job as a professor. He was frustrated and needed work. So Einstein accepted a position as a patent clerk and in his spare time between March and June, he wrote five scientific papers that changed the world forever! One of these papers help to launch a new branch of science called quatum mechanics that made things like modern computers, cell phones, and GPS possible. He changed our understanding of the universe and how we live today
    * Einstein's special relativity /// image 2 /// image 3 /// image 4 /// image 5 /// time dialation /// length contraction
    * Einstein's general relativity /// Spacetime image 1 /// Spacetime image 2 /// Spacetime image 3 /// Spacetime image 4
       
   
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Octet Rule
    * Alpha Particles
   
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Beta Particles
   
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Gamma Particles
    * Electron Capture
   
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Positrons
   
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Electromagnetic Effect
    * Photoelectric Effect
    * Nuclear Fission
    * Quantum Mechanic Model of the Atom (How it differs from Bohr's Model)
    * Quantum Numbers, Atomic Orbitals, and Electron Configuration
    * How to Make Soap
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Full Length Videos /// Not Required
    The links below are videos that where originally broadcasted as free programs on PBS. These videos are now only available for viewing with a $1.99 charge. You can pay to view these programs either through an iTunes or YouTube online account. YouTube is the less expensive service (less than $2 for each 60 minute show). So grab some friends, make a bowl of popcorn, and watch these shows. They are great entertainment and provide the best educational value for under $2.00.
     
   
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Back to the Beginning / Big Bang / video / 55 min
       
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Mystery of Matter - Out of Thin Air / One of science’s great odd couples—British minister Joseph Priestley and French tax administrator Antoine Lavoisier—together discover a fantastic new gas called oxygen, overturning the reigning theory of chemistry and triggering a worldwide search for new elements. Soon caught up in the hunt is science’s // video / 54 min
 
       
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Mystery of Matter - Unruly Elements /Over a single weekend in 1869, a young Russian chemistry professor named Dmitri Mendeleev invents the Periodic Table, bringing order to the growing gaggle of elements. But this sense of order is shattered when a Polish graduate student named Marie Sklodowska Curie discovers radioactivity. //video / 53 min
 
       
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Mystery of Matter - Into the Atom/ Caught up in the race to discover the atom’s internal parts—and learn how they fit together—is a young British physicist named Harry Moseley, who uses newly discovered X-rays to put the Periodic Table in a whole new light. And a young American chemist named Glenn Seaborg creates a new element. // video / 55 min
 
       

Chapter 3
Cellular Form and Function

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
   
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    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * Cell Structure and Physiology
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
   
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Origin of Cellular Life on Earth // Dr. Jack Szostak (Harvard / HHMI) Part 1
   
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Protocell Membranes // Dr. Jack Szostak (Harvard / HHMI) Part 2
    * The Nano-particles in Biology and Synthetic Biology with Sonia Contera (RI Video)
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Highly Recommended
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  > * WBC Phagocytosis of Bacteria
       
   
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Cell Animation / Harvard University Animation
       
    * Quantum Biology: How Physics Can Revolutionise Biology
       
  > * The Nano-particles in Biology and Synthetic Biology with Sonia Contera (RI Video)
    * Brownian Motion: The Force Able That Moves Nano-Strings
    * How can nanobiology contribute to have a happy, healthy sexual life by Peter Peters (TED Talk)
       
    Articles and Illustrations of Interest / Not Required
   
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Tensegrity: Forces That Form and Shape the Cytoskeleton - Buckminister Fuller
   
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The Clock Within Our Cells - Illustration Part A // Illustration Part B // Reference Artcle
       

  Chapter 4
Genetics and Cellular Functions

    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
    * DNA Replication and the Cell Cycle
    * Protein Synthesis
       
    Chapter Study (Exam)
    * Genetics, Cell Division and Protein Synthesis
       
    Vocabulary (Quiz)
      Print Word List C4
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
    * An Introduction to Genetics -- Dr. Aoife McLysaght
   
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Copy Number Variation and the Secret of Life -- Dr. Aoife McLysaght
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Highly Recommended
   
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Controlling the Cell Cycle
   
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How Mitosis Works
   
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How Meiosis Works
   
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Comparing Meiosis and Mitosis
       
   
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Modern Genetics
   
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Structural Basis of DNA
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    * Genetic Mutations and Diseases
       
  > * Living Circuits - Using Microbes to Cure Diseases in Humans
       
  > * Epigenetics Illustration SA
   
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    * RNA in the Proto-Life Soup
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    Articles and Illustrations of Interest / Not Required
    * Chimps, Bonobo, and Humans Are Linked by 98.7% of Our Common Genes
   
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    * DNA's "Digital" Storage Capacity (2)
    * Down Syndrome / Trisomy 21
  > * Twist of Fate / How Cytoskeleton and Matrix Interact to Regulates Cell Division
    * Living Curcuits Inside Bacteria May Cure Diseases in Humans
    * Living Curcuits: Making Cellular Applications with DNA
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * CRISPR-Cas9: Recent Update on Technology
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CRISPR-cas9: (Video) Example of an advancement in basic science leading to new therapies in medicine. This technology will lead directly to cures for many genetic diseases.
 
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CRISPR: (Video) New Knowledge Advances Biology / Geneticist Jennifer Doudna co-invented a groundbreaking new technology for editing genes, called CRISPR-Cas9. The tool allows scientists to make precise edits to DNA strands, which could lead to treatments for genetic diseases … but could also be used to create so-called "designer babies." Doudna reviews how CRISPR-Cas9 works — and asks the scientific community to pause and discuss the ethics of this new tool.
 
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CRISPR: (Video) Genome Editing with CRISPR-Cas9: McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT
 
    * CRISPR-cas9: (Article) The Gene Genie
    * CRISPR-cas9: (Article) Wiki Review
       
    * Genetic Mutations and Disease (Poster)
    * Molecular Genetics I/ Dr. Robert Sapolsky
    * Molecular Genetics II / Dr. Robert Sapolsky
       

Chapter 5
Histology

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
   
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Tissue Growth and Change
   
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Tissue Repair and Wound Healing
       
    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C5: Learning Outcomes
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Points)
    * How to Build a Dinosaur (15 min)
    * Out of the Lab, and into Society -- Dr. Aoife McLysaght
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Highly Recommended
   
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Tissue Type (Video 1)
   
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Tissue Types (Video 2)

   
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Cell Theory
   
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Intracellular Junctions
   
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Wound Healing
   
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Audio Review / Tissues
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Images - Slide Show: Various Tissues MRI False Color
   
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First Hints That Stem Cell Therapy Can Help Patients Get Better
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered // Not Required
      Burns
      Skin Cancer
      Skin Color
      Hair and Nails
       

Chapter 6
The Integument System

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
   
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The Integument System (Skin)
       
    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
   
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    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignment (Bonus Points)
    * How We Get Skin Color (3 min video // HHMI)
    * What Separates Humans from Chips? by Aeife McLysaght
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Not Required But Highly Recommended
   
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Introduction to the Integumentary System (Video)
   
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National Geographic: Skin (Video)
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Burns: First, Second, and Third
   
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Skin Cancers
    ** How We Get Skin Color (3 min video // HHMI)
   
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Audio Review / Skin and Its Appendages
       
    Articles of Interest / Highly Recommended
   
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Sick People Smell Bad
   
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    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * Burns
   
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Skin Cancers
   
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Nails and Hair
   
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Skin Color
   
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Pathophysiology: Skin Disorders
   
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Images Only / Integument
       

Chapter 7
Bone Tissue

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
    * Bone Tissue // Bone Development // Bone Fracture and Repair // Osteoporosis
       
    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C7: Learning Outcomes
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignment (Bonus Pts)
    * CRISPR: (Video) New Knowledge Advances Biology / Geneticist Jennifer Doudna co-invented a groundbreaking new technology for editing genes, called CRISPR-Cas9. The tool allows scientists to make precise edits to DNA strands, which could lead to treatments for genetic diseases … but could also be used to create so-called "designer babies." Doudna reviews how CRISPR-Cas9 works — and asks the scientific community to pause and discuss the ethics of this new tool.
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Not Required But Highly Recommended
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Bone Formation: Endochondral vs Intramembranous - (Video)
   
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Osteoporosis - Video
    * Audio Review / Skeletal Tissue
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Haemophilia: Joint Effort
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * Pathophysiology: Musculoskeletal Disorders
    * Bone Tissue / Only Images
    * Titanosaur Fossils: Image 1 - Image 2 - Image 3
       

Chapter 8
The Skeletal System


     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
   
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Introduction to the Skeletal System
       
      The structure of the skeletal system is covered in lab. Your textbook covers the skeletal sysem in C7 and C8. These PowePoint presentations are posted for reference material. However, some of the information in in the first PwPt below, the Skeletal System Overview & Spinal Column, has content which will also be covered and required as part of our Lecture Objectives (see Study Guide below).
   
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    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C8 Learning Outcomes
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignment (Bonus Points)
    * Cell Animation / Harvard University Animation
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // /Not Required But Highly Recommended
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Neandertal Teeth - What can teeth can tell us about our cousins?
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  > * Is this a smart way for women to walk?
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
      Audio Review / Skeletal System
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * Axial Skeleton / Only Images
    * Appendicular Skeleton / Only Images
    * Pectoral Girdle
    * Pelvic Girdle
    * Images Only of Appendicular Skeleton System
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Scapula Provides New Insight About Homanid Evolution
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       

Chapter 9
Joints

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
    * Introduction and Classification of Joints
       
    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C9: Learning Outcomes
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignment (Bonus Points)
    * The Origins of Tetrapods // Tetrapods Are Linked to Humans and they Evolved From Fish!
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // Highly Recommended
    * Skeletal Joints
    * Audio Review / Articulations
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * See Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * More About Joints
       

Chapter 11
Muscle Tissue

     
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
    * Muscular Tissue
   
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Nerve Muscle Relationship, Contraction Cycle, and Motor Units
   
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Length Tension Relationships / Muscle Behavior / Fiber Classes
   
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Muscle Energy / Metabolism / Fatigue
   
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Smooth Muscle and Cardiac Muscle
   
 
    Chapter Study Guide (Exam)
    * C11: Learning Outcomes.
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
   
 
    Team Assignment (Bonus Points)
   
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Movement Using ATP
   
 
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Highly Recommended
       
  > * Movement Using ATP - Sliding Filament Theory
  > * Atomic Force Microscope - Myosin Motor Movement
    * Muscles -- Anatomy Revealed Slide Presentation
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  > * Sliding Filament Theory / Review of Structure and Function
   
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Audio Review / Physiology of the Muscle System
    * Audio Review / Anatomy of the Muscle System
    * Electrophysiology: Demonstrating Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Function (Plus Control Tansfer)
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Evolved to Exercise (SA) - Unlike our ape cousins, humans require high levels of physical activity to be healthy.
    * What Does Running Do To the Brain?
    * See Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * Muscle Pathology
    * Smooth and Cardiac Muscles
       

Chapter 10
The Muscle System

       
    Preview Lecture Slides / Q&A Online
    * Introduction to the Muscle System
       
    Learning Objective (Exam)
    * C10 Study Guide
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Print Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Points)
    * Humans Are Unique Among Living Creatures
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // / Highly Recommended
    * Botulinum Toxin (Botox)
    * More Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics Not Covered in Learning Objectives // Not Required
    * Pathophysiology: Musculoskeletal Disorders
 
Lecture: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4 ////////////Lab: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4