Anatomy Lab HP // Physiology Lecture HP // Student Resources HP
Physiology Lecture Unit Three (C19 - C23)
Unit Three Lecture Objectives // Dictionary of Pronunciation // Medical Dictionary
  Unit Three Vocabulary Terms
 
  Chapter 18
The Cardiovascular System / Blood
 
     
    Lecture Slides
   
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Hemopoiesis = The Formation of RBC (Erythropoiesis) and WBC (Leukopoiesis)
    * Structure and Functions of the Formed Elements
    * Hemostasis
    * Blood Typing
   
 
    Chapter Study Guides (Exam)
    * C18 Study Guide
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Printable Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
    * Hemopoiesis and Stem Cells ///// Video Worksheet
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // Highly Recommended
    * Blood Typing - video
    * Red Blood Corpuscles Flowing Through Capillaries ///// Video Worksheet
   
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Hemoglobin Breakdown ///// Video Worksheet
   
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Hemostasis ///// Video Worksheet/
    * Blood Typing ///// Video Worksheet
    * Wound Healing ///// Video Worksheet
    * Audio Review / Blood
     
    Articles of Interest / Optional / Not Required
    ** Zarxio - Biologic drug made by E. coli using recombinant DNA /// Drug stimulates granulocytic colony forming units to reverse neutropienia and increase hemopoiesis // used in cancer therapies.
    * HS Football Player Dies From Ruptured Spleen
   
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    * Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics of Interest / Not Learning Objectives / Not Required
    * Pathophysiology: Blood and Circulatory System
       
 
  Chapter 19
The Cardiovascular System / The Heart
 
    Lecture Slides
   
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Function of the Heart
   
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The Cardiac Cycle, Cardiac Output, and Cardiac Regulation
       
    Chapter Study Guides (Exam)
    * C19 Study Guide
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Printable Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
   
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What is shock? (4 Types) ---> Worksheet 7
   
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The Cardiac Cycle / Isovolumetric Phases ---> Worksheet 2
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // Highly Recommended
   
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Blood Flow Through the Heart ---> Worksheet 3
   
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Coronary Circulation ---> Worksheet 4
   
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The Cardiac Conduction System ---> Worksheet 5
    * EKG Illustrated ---> Worksheet 6
    * Audio Review / Anatomy of the Heart
    * Dissection of the Human Heart - Video
   
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    * Heart Blockage and Heart Attack
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Commotio Cordis - Heart Trauma Causes Rare Disruption of T Wave Repolarization
    * Cardiomegaly (Enlarged Heart)
    * Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics of Interest / Not Required
    * Pathophysiology of the Heart
 
  Chapter 20
Blood Vessels & Hemodynamics
 
     
    Lecture Slides
   
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Introduction to Blood Vessels
   
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Blood Pressure and Blood Flow
   
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Special Circulatory Routes
       
    Chapter Study Guides (Exam)
    * C20 Study Guide
    * C20 Study Guide - HL
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Printable Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
    * 06 --> Worksheet --> Capillary Fluid Exchange-Detailed (Video)
   
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05 --> Worksheet --> Fluid Exchange
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // Highly Recommended
    * 01 --> Worksheet --> Sphygmomanometer: How to Check Blood Pressure (Video)
   
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02 --> Worksheet --> Arteries and Veins (Video)
   
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03 --> Worksheet --> Veinous Valves (Video)
   
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04 --> Worksheet --> How Capillaries Work (Video)
    * 07 --> Worksheet --> Hepatic Portal Circulation (Video)
   
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08 --> Worksheet --> Fetal Blood Circulation (Video)
   
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09 --> Worksheet --> Baro Receptor Reflex
    * Chemo Receptor Reflex
   
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Watch immune cell "reconnect" broken blood vessel.
   
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Why do we study comparitive physiology? Zebrafish heart regeneration.
   
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    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics of Interest / Not Required
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  Chapter21
The Lymphatic and Immunity
 
    Lecture Slides
   
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Introduction to the Lymphatic and the Immune Systems
   
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Lymphatic Cells VS Lymphatic Tissue VS Lymphatic Organs
   
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Innate Immunity: Defensive Barriers and Non-Speific Resistance
   
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Adaptive Immunity (also called Acquired Immunity)
   
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Four Types of Adaptive Immunity - Classification Model
   
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Antibodies Structure and Function
   
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Hypersensitivity
   
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Autoimmune and Immunodeficiency Diseases
      Lecture Slides
     
   
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C21 Study Guide / Part A - The Lymphatics System - HL
   
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C21 Study Guide / Part B - Non-specific Resistance & Adaptive Immunity - HL
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Printable Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
      15 Worksheet ---> Vaccinations
      10 Worksheet ---> Activation of Helper T Cells and Cytotoxic T Cells
      03 Worksheet ---> The Inflammatory Response
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // Highly Recommended
    *** Outline for Adaptive Immunity
    *** Outline for Adaptive Immunity with audio comments --> Part 1 and Part 2
    *** How Cellular and Humoral Adaptive Immunity Develops ( Part A // Part B / Part C)
    ** 01 Worksheet ---> How Bacteria Cause Disease // Dr. Levenson, MD / University of California.
   
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02 Worksheet ---> Lymphatic System's Role in Immunity
   
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04 Worksheet ---> Activation of the Immune Response
   
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05 Worksheet ---> Natural Killer Cells - Video
   
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06 Worksheet ---> Interferon Anti Viral Activity
   
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07 Worksheet ---> Complement Activation
   
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08 Worksheet ---> Cells of the Immune System (HHMI)
   
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09 Worksheet ---> Clonal Selection
   
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11 Worksheet ---> Antigen Processing
   
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12 Worksheet ---> IgE Hypersensitivity
   
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13 Worksheet ---> Immune Complex Type III
   
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14 Worksheet ---> Delayed Type IV Hypersensitivity
   
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16 Worksheet ---> Where do viruses come from?
   
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17 Worksheet ---> CoVID-19 Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics - Part 1 // ( 50 min.)
   
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--------------- --> CoVID-19: Treatment, Prognosis, Precautions - Part II
   
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Audio Review / Lymphatic System
   
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Audio Review / Immune System
    * Audio Review / Stress
   
 
 
   
    More Videos About the Immune System / Not Required
       
     

When you need to learn a complex subject, it helps to first study a simpler model.. The first four videos presents "a simpler model" about human immunity. The other videos covers more specific mechanisms about the innate and adaptive immune systems.

So to begin, our immune system has two divisions: innate immunity and adaptive immunity. All animals (invertebrates and vertebrates) possess innate immunity, a type of non-specific resistance to pathogens. An innate immune response will attack indiscriminately microbes and other pathogens. Vertebrates have an additional and more powerful immune response called adaptive immunity. This will destroy specific pathogens and then make memory cells to recognize the same pathogen in the future. Upon a second exposure to the pathogen, the memory cells respond so rapidly that you do not even know you were infected..

At the bottom of the page are four lectures sponsored by HHMI and presented by "world leaders in the field of immunology". These lectures will allow the curious student to learn from the most knowledgeable scientist now working on advanced research in immunology.

 
     
   
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Lymphatic System's Role in Immunity
   
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The Inflammatory Response
   
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    * Adaptive Immunity (HHMI):
     
   
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Non Specific Resistance
   
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Natural Killer Cells - Video
   
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Interferon Anti Viral Activity
   
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Activation of Complement
   
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Agglutination
     
   
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Clonal Selection (Activaton of B cells to Plasma Cells & mB-Cells with Antibody Formation
    * Helper T Cell Activation / Mechanism (HHMI) // View the animation to see how one type of immune cell—the helper T cell—interprets a message presented at the surface of the cell membrane. The message is an antigen, a protein fragment taken from an invading microbe. A series of events unfolds that results in the production of many clones of the helper T cell. These identical T cells can serve as a brigade forming an essential communication network to activate B cells, which make antibodies that will specifically attack the activating antigen.
   
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    * Activation of Helper T Cells and Cytotoxic T Cells (Illustration)
   
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Cell Dependent Antigens
   
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Antigen Processing and Presentation / Macrophage and B Cells
   
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Antigen Presenting Cells
   
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Antigen Processing
   
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Antigenic Determinants
     
   
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Antibodies
   
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Antibody Diversity
     
   
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    * Polio virus
   
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    * Delayed Type IV Hypersensitivity
    * Immunization Vacination Schedule
   
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    * Cloning cytotoix T Cells - Activation Pathways (3 min video / HHMI)
    ** Cytotoxic T Cells Attacking Infected Cell
     
   
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    * Cancer: Using Immunotherapy to Kill Cancer Cells
    *** > Check Point Therapy - Dendritic Cell Vacines - CAR T Cells // SA Illustration
      > Synthetic Immune Cells - SA Illustration
      > How Dendritic Cells Activate T Cells - Illustration
      > PD-1 As Cytotoxic T Cell "Suicide Switch" - Leads to New Immuno-Cancer Therapy
      > Program Cell Death Receptor
      > Blocking PDL-1
      > PD-1 and PDL-1 Video ---Very Good!
    *** > Review Four New Immunooncology Therapies -- Also Very Good!
      > How the Immune System Sees and Destroys Tumors, Dr. Jeffrey Weber, MD, PhD (90 minutes)
    *** > Multiple Myeloma: This is the second most common type of blood cancer. It is a disease of the B cell line. It is a pernicious disease characterized by remission and relapse but unfortunately, there is no cure. With your knowledge of human physiology, you now should be able to understand the pathophysiology of myeloma. This slide show illustrates the progression of the disease. This presentation also teaches us the significance of why we study human physiology.
       
     
    * Sloan Kettering Scientists Engineer Immune System to Identify and
Destroy Leukemia and Prostate Cancer Cells (6 min)
     
       
    ** HIV Life Cycle // How HIV Cripples Immune System by Infecting Helper T-Cells (5 min video - HHMI)
    * Where do viruses come from? (Video)
       
    * Audio Review / Lymphatic System
    * Audio Review / Immune System
    * Audio Review / Stress
       
    * British Society for Immunology // Web Site
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Future of Medicine - Living Curcuits
    * Neuroimmunology: The Mind Body Connection.
   
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New Science - Synthetic Immune Cells ( Article with image)
    * Cytotoxic T Cell Activation (Wiki)
   
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PDL-1 Check Point Inhibitors
    * Zika - An Emerging Disease: This is a good example of what happens when the world ignores an emerging disease until it becomes a potential global pandemic. The catastrophe is only further fueled by the USA congress who now stay on their summer vacations while refusing to provide necessary funding for scientific research necessary to solve the Zika problem. Unfortunately, history often repeats its failures!
    * Articles of Interest / Archival - See Immunology
       
    Topics of Interest / Not Learning Objectives / Not Required
    * Understanding Pathogens and the Flu Virus
    ** Antiviral Drugs for the Flu: Tamiflu VS Xofluza
       
      The four lectures below, Immunity: Friend or Foe, where sponsored by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Each one hour lecture covers an important topic related to our immune system.
   
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Lecture 1: How Cells Create Trillions of Receptors from a Few Hundred Parts
by John Kappler, PhD
   
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Lecture 2: How the Immune System Detects Invaders
   
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Lecture 3: How the Host Avoids "Friendly Fire" by Dr. Kappler, PhD
   
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Lecture 4: Stalking the Elusive Pathogen by Dr. Phillippa Marrack, PhD
       
 
  Chapter 22
The Respiratory System
 
    Lecture Slides
   
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Respiratory System Structure and Function
   
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Respiratory System Regulation
       
    Chapter Study Guides (Exam)
    * C23 Study Guides - Respiratory System -HL
       
    Vocabulary (Exam)
    * Printable Word List
       
    Team Assignments (Bonus Pts)
    * Partial Pressures: Movement of Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide /// Worksheet
    * Transport of Respiratory Gases /// Worksheet
       
    Tutorial Videos & More // Highly Recommended
    * Carbonic anhydrase and the transport of CO2 in blood. (Video) /// Worksheet
    * Respiratory Volumes & Spirometry - Excellent Presentation! (Video) /// Worksheet
    * Larynx Sagital View (Video) //// Worksheet
   
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Larynx Anterior View (Video) /// Worksheet
   
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Trachea & Bronchi (Video) /// Worksheet
   
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Asthma (Video) /// Worksheet
   
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Sheep Plunk I / Infating Fresh Lung Tissue /// Worksheet
   
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Inflation of Smoker and Non-Smoker Lungs /// Worksheet
   
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Boyles Law - Pressure and Volume (Video) /// Worksheet
    * Charle's Law - Pressure and Temperature (Video) //// Worksheet
   
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Dalton's Law - Partial Pressure (1) (Video) //// Worksheet
    * Henry's Law - Gas Pressure & Solubility (Video) ////Worksheet
    * How Singing Changes the Length of the Vocal Cords (Video) /// Worksheet
   
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H Steven Tyler's Vocal Cords //// Worksheet
    * Mechanism of Breathing /// Worksheet
    * Audio Review / Respiratory System
       
    Articles of Interest / Not Required
    * Lung Function Test
   
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    * Hiccups
    * Articles of Interest / Archival
       
    Topics of Interest / Not Learning Objectives / Not Required
    * Pathophysiology: Respiratory System
       
Lecture: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4 ////////////Lab: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4