Anatomy and Physiology Student Resources
Cliff Belleau MS / Adjunct Professor at Macomb County Community College -- email

"If you ever hear yourself saying, 'I think I understand this,' that means you don't."
Dr. Richard Feynman PhD, Nobel Prize Theoretical Physics

Course Content  

Lecture: Unit 1 /// Unit 2 /// Unit 3 /// Unit 4 <<>> Lab: Unit 1 /// Unit 2 /// Unit 3 /// Unit 4
First Day Orientation //// My Teaching Philosophy








Message Board

6/15 - Unit Three Lecture and Exam Schedules.
> 6/18 Tues --- C18 Blood
> 6/19 Wed -- C20 Blood Vessels
> 620 Thur --- C21 Lymphati and Immune Systems
> 6/24 Mon- - C21 Lymphatic and Immune Systems
6/25 Tues ---- C19 The Heart
6//26 Wed --- C22 The Respiratory System
6/27 Thur ---- Lab Exam + C24 The Urinary System
7/1 Mon ---- - Lecture Exam Unit Two

6/6 - Use you time wisely. Complete all homework assignments through C15 by Monday. Print and study the list of hormones posted on the Web site. For lab, prepare for the sheep brain and cow eye dissections. Review, review, review! I am happy to take some of my lecture time to review, but only if you are prepared to give me correct answers. Do all you can do today to make tomorrow better.

6/3 - Lab objectives for tomorrow: 1) Nervous Tissue, 2) Spinal Cord, 3) Reflex Arc /// Lecture: C12 Nervous Tissue

6/3- All Video HW Assignment questions have been updated.(3:30 PM)

6/2 - Unit Two Lecture Schedule:
> Tues (6/4) - C12 Nervous Tissue
> Wed (6/5) - C13 Spinal Cord and Spinal Reflexes
> Thurs (6/6) - C14 Brain
> Mon (6/1j0) - C14 Brain
> Tues (6/11) - C15 Autonomic Nervous System
> Wed (6/12) - C16 Special Senses
> Thurs (6/13 - C17 Endocrine System

5/26 - Next week lecture schedule:
> Mon - no class
> Tues - finish C5 histology (30 min) // C6 Skin (60 min) // start C7 Bone (30 min)
> Wed - C7 bone tissue, osteoporosis, sinuses, spinal curvature, intervertebral disc (60 min) // C9 joints (30 min) // start C11
> Thurs - finish C11 skeletal muscle (120 min)

Unfortunately, there will be no time time to review lessons before the exam. So, bring your questions to class.

5/23 - Time is your enemy. Use your time wisely over the next four days. Try to do all of Unit One's study guides and video assignment before coming back to class on Tuesday. You can do it! And when you do it then you will find yourself well positioned for the first unit exam. The prefrontal cortex of your brain should make you do the "harder thing when it is the right thing to do". This is true! It is neuroscience. Your prefrontal cortex is the "Captain that steers the ship". Seiz the Day. (Do all you can do today to make tomorrow better.)

5/22 - You need to complete Chapter 4 and Chapter 5 homework assignments for Thursday's lab and lecture. I know this is a lot of work, however. We need to cover in eight weeks what is normally covered in 16 weeks! This is what you signed up to do. As you can see, it will take at least three hours per day of study time to learn the information as it is covered in the lab/lecture. The first unit is the hardest. But you will still need to study a lot throughout the entire eight weeks.

I will give you a chance to use the weekend/holiday to catch up on your homework assignments. Any work turned in on Tuesday of next week will receive full credit.

5/21 - Chapter 3 homework due on Wednesday. Wednesday's goal is to complete C3 power-point lecture. Bring your "questions" to lecture. You should be working on C2 homework which will be due next Tuesday. Please do not fall behind. If you prepare for lab and lecture then you will be successful!

5/20 - Please hand write answers to video homework assignment.

5/20 - Welcome to the first day of AP. I hope you are excited to learn about the structure and function of the human body. Remember, you will need to study outside of class for two or three hours each day, seven days a week. Think of this study time as an investment in your future. Turn in you homework on time for full credit. You need to compare your answers with other students to make sure your answers are correct and complete. After checking your answers with other students, if you are still not sure your answers are correct then ask me your questions at the beginning of each lecture period.

Here is what you need for Tuesday's session:
> Turn in C1 Study Guide
>Turn in C1 Video Homework Assignment
>Read C1 and C2
>Preview C2 Lecture Slides
>Identify location of lab structures through the upper appendages.
> Please note: C2 Study Guide and Video Homework is not due until next week on Tuesday

Here is what you need for Wednesday's session:
>Turn in C3 Study Guide
>Turn in C3 Video Homework Assignment
>Read chapter C3
>Lab Objectives for lower extremity, axial skeleton's thorax and hyoid bone, and vertebral column

Suggested Lab Objective Learning Schedule:
5/21 - Body Cavities / Abdominal Regions / Serous Membranes / Appendicular Skeleton
5/22 - Lower Extremity / Thorax & Hyoid / Vertebral Column
5/23 - Skull
5/28 - Muscle Histology / Muscles of Head and Face / Muscles of Chest and Back / Muscles of the Shoulder
5/29 - Muscles of the Upper Limb / Muscles of the Abdomen / Muscles of the Pelvis
5/30 - Diffusion & Osmosis / Integument / Bone Histology / Long Bone Structue

Please Note: You should try to work ahead of my posted schedule. Use the days when we do not have class to catch up and get ahead of the posted schedule.

BIOL 2710 Lecture + Exam Schedules (S2024)
Syllabus Section (S2024)

Student Acknowledgment Course Policies..



> Last day for refund >> : Second Wednesday after class start!  

> Last day to withdraw >> In order to properly withdraw from a class, the student must complete and submit the class withdrawal on Self Service Student Planning or in person at the Office of Records & Registration. Non-payment or non-attendance does not constitute a proper withdrawal and students who stop paying and/or attending classes without properly withdrawing will be held financially and academically responsible for the class(es)....



    How Many Hours Will You Need to Study Daily to Pass This Class?  
    Learning is all about "Time on Task" > In order to learn the lecture and lab objectives, you will need to study two to three hours per day, seven days a week for the next 16 weeks! This recommendation is taken from research data collected by the Michigan Educational Association. Remember, this is "study time" and does not include the time in class for the lab and lecture. Study time is the "investment you are making in your future". The Roman poet Horace said famously, "Carpe diem" . (i.e. seize the day or "one should do all one can today to make one's future better). Carpe diem!  

Key Idea: Neuroscience research discovered that it is more beneficial if you study daily. If you skip five two hour daily study times, but then try to make up for lost daily study time by spending one ten hour study time later in the week does not work. The benefit of the daily study time idea is based on how your brain works: synaptic potentiation, memory recall, and memory re-consolidation. We know recalling stored information reinforces "the memory trace". This is a nerve pathway which is established in our brains as we place information (i.e. the factoid) into our memory. Recall and re-consolidation (i.e. retrieving and replacing the memory) reinforces the synaptic connections along the memory trace. This is how the brain works! "Neurons that fire together wire together". So if we hope to benefit from our scientific knowledge, then we should be willing to change our behavior.


Is it wise to ignore scientific facts because the facts are inconvenient?


The purpose of science is to find the truth! Researchers who study classroom learning have discovered how personal digital devices (e.g. cell phones and lap-top computers) affect learning in the lecture class. The experimental results are alarming. When digital devices were allowed in the class room, class test results were one full grade lower! So in the interest of both "science and best practices in the lecture room", I prohibit cell phones and personal computers in my lecture classes. No exceptions!

This scientific evidence is not an isolated finding. There is a growing body of evidence all suggesting the negative impact of digital devices on classroom learning. The negative impact on learning occurs for both the user and those students near the digital user. Even the mere presence of the digital devices, turned off and in the student's backpack, will have negative consequences on the individual. I have provided you with several articles below to support my classroom policy. I realize that for some students this policy may feel unfair or inconvenient. My policy is based on scientific research and is in my student's best interest. Please read the reference articles below to learn how digital devices in the classroom harms classroom learning and lowers test scores.

How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds - If you are smart then you will read this article. If you are wise then you will leave your phones at home or in your car when you come into school. "Students who didn't bring their phones to the classroom scored a full letter-grade higher on a test of the material presented than those who brought their phones to class."

Laptop Multi-tasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Users and Nearby Peers -- "Seeking Best Practices in Teaching" means a willingness to apply knowledge to ensure the best possible outcome for your students. This article is my justification for prohibiting laptop computers in my lectures. You can use laptop computers in lab. The "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds" is the justification for my cell phone policy. Sometimes science is inconvenient and in conflict with your personal wishes; but science seeks the truth. I hope you will read the smart-phone and laptop computer articles.

French school children head back to school without their cell phones, smart phones, and tablets. (link to article)

Why Writing by Hand Is Better for Memory and Learning

Why the Brain Prefers Paper.

Digital Addiction: Rising rates of depression and anxiety in wealthy countries like the U.S. may be a result of our brains getting hooked on the neurotransmitter (dopamine) associated with pleasure/reward.  

    Reference Links:  
>   Medical Dictionary //  
>   "" Hear the words pronounced. There are currently 154,680 entries in the dictionary.  
>   WileyPLUS Registration Instructions  
>>   Peer Instruction > Dr. Eric Mazur PhD Phisics at Harvard // How he reinvented the classroom!  
>   MC3 Library Hours -W2022  
    In The News:  
>   Gene Therapy for Muscular Dystrophy // (Second Article)  
>   Did the Discovery of Fire Make Our Brains Bigger?  
>   Nurses Forced into Indentured Servfitude to Hospitals.  
>>   New Vaccine Developed at $1 Cost Per Shot VS $25 For Other Big Pharma Vaccines  
>>   Inequity in the United States now eclipse the "Gilded Age" of the 1890s with the unfettered capitalism of Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan. In our collective history, no society and no democracy has lasted with such extreme inequities. Furthermore, there is an intersection where health and inequity meet. We have the scientific data to illustrate why and how inequities in a society negatively impacts health and increases disease. The article, A Rigged Economy, explains how extreme inequities in the United States occurred over time and suggest how we can restore a more balanced economy. The article, The Health-Wealth Gap, explains how poverty by itself does not cause disease but when povery is linked to low social economic status so those with little are surrounded by those with wealth (i.e. inequities) then the low SES will causes disease and reduces life expectancy.  
>>   TED Talk by Rutger Bergman - The author of Utopia for Realist /// Mr. Bergman explains in his talk how poverty can be overcome with gaurenteed income and how this will improve both health and social order.  
>>   Hypothesis Targets Porphyromonas gingivalis (bacteria in mouth) as Causative Agent for Alzheimer Disease // Artcle 2  
>   Malady Mongers: How Drug Companies Sell Treatments by Inventing Diseases  
>   Update 2018: Why Is Healthcare So Expensive in United States?  
>   America's Health Care Comes in Last Again - Most Expensive and Delivers Worst Outcomes  
>>   Here Are Two Affirmations You Should Repeat at the Start of Every Day!  
>   The Man in the Arena (Part of Teddy Roosevelt's 1910 Speech)  
>   Congressman John Lewis Farewell Speech  


Health Care & Other Resources
Anatomy and Physiology Students

  BioInteractive Home Page  
  Follow this link (What is BioInteractive?) to learn about an amazing "science resource portal". It is the work of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. It has a teaching mission but also provides research grants to scientist working in human physiology and medicine. Their novel approach to funding scientist has produced significant results with a steady stream of Noble Prize Winners. This link ( will take you to a catalog of videos produced by HHMI. The link at the top of this section (highlighted in grey) will take you directly to BioInteractive's Home Page. This is a must visit Web site!  
  Royal Instition of Great Britian  
  The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London. It was founded in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president, George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea. The lecture hall at the Royal Institute is considered the most famous lecture hall in the world! (Lecture Series on "Being Human")  
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  
The CDC should be your first source for information about disease and wellness. This site is designed to provide valuable healthcare information to physicians as well as to the general public. The CDC also reports on emerging diseases around the world and in the United States. BioInteractive
  National Institutes of Health  
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation’s medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives. The NIH is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. For over a century, NIH scientists have paved the way for important discoveries that improve health and save lives..
  American Council on Science & Health  
The American Council on Science and Health was founded in 1978 by a group of scientists with a singular mission – to provide an evidence-based counterpoint to the wave of anti-science claims that became the calling card of fundraising groups who were using mass media to promote fear about topics such as food, energy and medicine. These scientists created an organization that could add data and reason to debates about science and public health issues and to provide that data to policy makers and the public. ACSH is a national, non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) education and advocacy organization based in New York City.
  Food and Drug Administration  

FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA's organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations.

  Kaiser Family Foundation  
Kaiser is a non-profit organization focusing on national health issues, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own policy analysis, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with major news organizations. We serve as a non-partisan source of facts, analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media,  the health
policy community and the public. Our product is information, always provided free of charge — from the most sophisticated policy research, to basic facts and numbers, to in depth health policy news coverage provided by our news service, KHN, to information young people can use to improve their health or the general public can use to understand the health reform law. Our core mission is filling the need for trusted information about Health Issues
PharMedOut is a Georgetown University Medical Center project that advances evidence-based prescribing and educates healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical marketing practices. PharMedOut promotes evidence-based medicine by providing slideshows, videos, events, and links to pharma-free CME courses. (Founded by Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman)
"In Sick Around the World, Frontline teams up with veteran Washington Post foreign correspondent T.R. Reid to find out how five other capitalist democracies --(United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan and Switzerland) -- deliver health care, and what the United States might learn from their successes and their failures." April 15, 2008   Follow this link:
Their mission is to educate citizens about the benefits of a Single-Payer National Health Program. The U.S. spends twice as much as other industrialized nations on health care, $8,160 per capita. Yet our system performs poorly in comparison and still leaves 50.7 million without health coverage and millions more inadequately covered. This is because private insurance profits, unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork over electronic documents consume one-third (31 percent) of every health care dollar.

Greg Silver, MD
(Note: the new Health Care Reform Act now mandates that a health insurance company spends a higher percent of your health care premium for health care services and if they don't spend the premium for medical services then they must rebate that money to the insured. However, it is still less fair than what other industrial countries do with their national healther care programs.) Streamlining payment through a single nonprofit payer would save more than $400 billion per year, enough to provide comprehensive, high-quality coverage for all Americans. Follow this Link to Visit PNHP's Web Site
Lectures by Dr. Robert Sapolsky, The John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn
Professor of Biological Sciences and Neurology at Stanford University

Dr. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biology, Neurosurgery, Neurology & Neurological Sciences at Stanford University.  You can now attend Professor Sapolsky eclectic lectures online.   These inspirational lectures cover complex normal and abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, they show us how we can integrate disciplines like sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness. After you watch these lectures, you will understand why Professor Sapolsky was voted by his students to be the best teacher at Stanford University.

The Limbic System

Link to 27 Lectures by Dr. Sapolsky
Stanford University

Robert Sapolsky won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works, and in particular how prolonged stress can cause both physical and mental health problems. Author of seven bestselling books including A Primate’s Memoir and Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, he has made annual trips to Africa for the past twenty three years to study a population of wild baboons and the relationships between their personalities and patterns of stress-related diseases. One of the nation’s top biologists, he is also a wry humanist, and reminds us: “If a rat is a good model for your emotional life, you’re in trouble.”

  How Bacteria Talk
by Dr. Bonnie Bassler, Princeton University

Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine.

In 2002, bearing her microscope on a microbe that lives in the gut of fish, Bonnie Bassler isolated an elusive molecule called AI-2, and uncovered the mechanism behind mysterious behavior called quorum sensing -- or bacterial communication. She showed that bacterial chatter is hardly exceptional or anomalous behavior, as was once thought -- and in fact, most bacteria do it, and most do it all the time. (She calls the signaling molecules "bacterial Esperanto.")



The discovery shows how cell populations use chemical powwows to stage attacks, evade immune systems and forge slimy defenses called biofilms. For that, she's won a MacArthur "genius" grant -- and is giving new hope to frustrated pharmacos seeking new weapons against drug-resistant superbugs.

Bassler teaches molecular biology at Princeton, where she continues her years-long study of V. harveyi, one such social microbe that is mainly responsible for glow-in-the-dark sushi. She also teaches aerobics at the YMCA.

“She's really the one who's shown that this is something that all these bacteria are doing all the time. And if we want to understand them, we have to understand quorum sensing.” — Ned Wingreen, Princeton, on Nova ScienceNOW -- Go To TED Talk


Thirty cents of every dollar spent on U.S. health care -- a total of $750 billion -- was wasted in 2009 on unnecessary services, excessive administrative costs, fraud and other problems, according to the Institute of Medicine. It's enough to cover every uninsured American six times over. What else could it buy? ss
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine" Influenza" was our most recent "near-miss" pandemic. When will it be back? Why are scientists terrified about the H5N1 virus? Why do some scientist believe the H5N1 virus may kill worldwide more than a billion people? Why are newborns and senior citizens more likely to survive a flu pandemic? ss
Harvard Health Publishing by Harvard Medical School
This web site is a trusted reaource for advise about living a healthier life. You may use this site to start your search for trusted information on a broad range of topics: heart health, mind and mood, pain, nutrition, staying healthy, cancer, diseases, men's health, wormen's health, and much more.

OpenBiome mission is to be the trusted brand in bringing improved health through microbiome solutions. If you are a student looking for an exciting career in science, then you may want to think about working for a biotech company...

Self-Pace "Master Class" on SARS-CoVID-19

The SARS-CoVID-19 virus (yellow spheres) emerge from host cell after replication. (scanning electron microscope image) After replication, thousands of newly formed virus leave the dead host cell to infect thousands of new healthy host cells. Follow the status of the CoVID-19 pandemic on the Wuhan Dashboards (see below). If you are curious, then you must watch the first two video links below. They are both "best in their class".

>> Sars-CoVid-2 Animation About the Virus, Infection, Detection and Vaccinations by BioInteractive
>> Corona Virus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics - Part 1 // (50 min.) - Great Lecture!!!

>>Omicron: The Case of Hidden Evolution (Surprise, the Omicron Virus Did Not Evolve From Delta Variant)

>> Wuhan CoVID19 Worldwide Dashboard
>> Tracking CoVID19 Across US by State and County Dashboard
>> Learn More >>> Follow this link to find videos and articles about CoVID-19.

 "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm"..   Henry David Thoreau

How I Used My "Pandemic Time Away From School" to Build a Duplex
Site Preparation /// Sewer, Water, and Driveway /// Detached Garage
Foundation & Mason Work
/// Framing /// Front Gable Video

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