Anatomy and Physiology Student Resources
Cliff Belleau / Adjunct Instructor / Macomb County Community College

Physiology: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 /// Anatomy: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4

gDrawings by Leonardo da Vinci  /  Renaissance Artist & Scientist (1452 - 1519)

  Message Board
Fall Semester 2017

10/18 - We will start Unit Three Lectures today. I will post the Chapter Study Guide with Hot List Questions before class. (C19 Chapter Study Guide - HL)

10/7 - We will re-schedule the lecture exam for Friday, October 19th. We will take the lecture exam after the lab exam on Friday.

10/4 - SCHOOL CLOSED! This created a serious problem. It is difficult to cover all the required lecture objectives in any Unit, however. When we miss a lecture period, it only makes the lecture schedule even more impossible. So here is what you need to do. Please preview all of my posted lecture PowerPoints if you have not already done this. We will do the "sheep brain dissection" on Friday. After the dissection you will have lab time to study learning objectives. I will use some of your lab time to cover the Autonomic Nervous System (both structure and function). On Monday, I will finish the C14 lectures and start special senses.

10/4 - Here are all the current Unit Two Chapter Study Guides: C12 -- C13 -- C14 -- C15 -- C16 -- C17 -- C18 -- C18 Required Hormones. In the future, you will be responsible for printing all Chapter Study Guides. I have been restricted on the use of the printer in the office.

10/3 - Here is the C18 Study Guide Questions with Hot List Questions. In this handout, I am also "giving you the correct answers" to the questions! I already gave you a list of Science Department Required Hormones and you are working on memorizing the hormones origin, target tissue, and primary function. You need to start to learn this information "right now" and don't wait until the Unit Two Exam is "on your doorstep". See C18 Study Guide

9/25 - We are now working on Unit Two. I have not changed my recommendation on how to earn a passing grade in this class. You need to prepare for both our lecture and lab classes. For lecture, you need to read the textbook and review the power-point slides before we cover the material in class. You also need to ask questions in class if you don't understand the material. If you can't read the entire chapter then at least review the pictures, graphics, and read the two page summary at the end of the chapter.

Unit One Lab scores were very low. It is your responsibility to learn the location of the Lab Objectives at home before coming to lab by using your textbook, lab manual, and extensive resources provided for you on-line. The lab is the "easy grade" and the lecture should be the more difficult half of your overall grade. If you leave lab early then you should not be surprised if you receive a low lab score.

Here is the good news: you have time to save your grade if you post low scores on Unit One, however. There is no time to waste. Students who received "A" and "B" for Unit One studied on average two to three hours per day. This is what it will take to pass this class. If you can not invest this amount of time to achieve a professional career in the future then you need to reassess your goals and why you are in this class!

I wish all of my students "Good Luck". But remember these wise words: : "The harder I worked, the luckier I got", Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Car Company.


Important Notes:

Research by the Michigan Educational Association found that a student needs to "study" three hours for every lecture hour. So this tells us how much time it should take to learn the lecture material. Therefore, based on our lecture schedule, you should invest a minimum of 12 hours of study time per week or approximately two hours per day, seven days per week. Remember, this also includes the days when you are in class!

Research also tells us that it is more beneficial if you study daily instead of skipping several days then trying to "make up the time" on the weekend by studying six or eight hours. There is scientific evidence to support this idea based on "memory consolidation, memory recall, and memory re-consolidation". Recalling stored information reinforces "the memory trace" which is a nerve pathway established in our brains when we originally placed the factoid into our memory. Recall and re-consolidation (i.e. putting the memory back after we are done using it) reinforces the synaptic connections along the memory trace. This is how our brain works!.

So if the purpose of science is to find "truth" in all that we do, then to benefit from scientific we must use this knowledge, allow the knowledge to change our behavior, and apply this knowledge in our daily life.

Please email me when you find broken links. Thanks!

  In The News:  
> Recent events in Flint, Michigan have again illustrated a failure at the intersection of science and public policy. This has resulted in catastrophic consequences. Here are two review articles about lead that you may want to read: Lead Poisoning // Correlation Between Lead Poisoning and Crime  

Zika - An Emerging Disease: This is a good example of what happens when the world ignores an emerging disease until it becomes a potential global pandemic. The catastrophe is only further fueled by the USA congress who now stay on their summer vacations while refusing to provide necessary funding for scientific research necessary to solve the Zika problem. Unfortunately, history often repeats its failures!


> WileyPLUS Student's Self-Directed Study Resource  
> MC3 Library Hours (2017W)  
  Links to Resources About Health Care & Other Topics of Special Interest
for Anatomy and Physiology Students
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  
The CDC should be your first source for information about disease and wellness. This site is designed to provide valuable healthcare information to physicians as well as to the general public. The CDC also reports on emerging diseases around the world and in the United States.
  National Institutes of Health  
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation’s medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives. The NIH is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. For over a century, NIH scientists have paved the way for important discoveries that improve health and save lives.
  American Council on Science & Health  
The American Council on Science and Health was founded in 1978 by a group of scientists with a singular mission – to provide an evidence-based counterpoint to the wave of anti-science claims that became the calling card of fundraising groups who were using mass media to promote fear about topics such as food, energy and medicine. These scientists created an organization that could add data and reason to debates about science and public health issues and to provide that data to policy makers and the public. ACSH is a national, non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) education and advocacy organization based in New York City.
  Food and Drug Administration  

FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA's organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations.

  Kaiser Family Foundation  
Kaiser is a non-profit organization focusing on national health issues, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own policy analysis, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with major news organizations. We serve as a non-partisan source of facts, analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media,  the health
policy community and the public. Our product is information, always provided free of charge — from the most sophisticated policy research, to basic facts and numbers, to in depth health policy news coverage provided by our news service, KHN, to information young people can use to improve their health or the general public can use to understand the health reform law. Our core mission is filling the need for trusted information about Health Issues
PharMedOut is a Georgetown University Medical Center project that advances evidence-based prescribing and educates healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical marketing practices. PharMedOut promotes evidence-based medicine by providing slideshows, videos, events, and links to pharma-free CME courses. (Founded by Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman)
"In Sick Around the World, Frontline teams up with veteran Washington Post foreign correspondent T.R. Reid to find out how five other capitalist democracies --(United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan and Switzerland) -- deliver health care, and what the United States might learn from their successes and their failures." April 15, 2008   Follow this link:
Their mission is to educate citizens about the benefits of a Single-Payer National Health Program. The U.S. spends twice as much as other industrialized nations on health care, $8,160 per capita. Yet our system performs poorly in comparison and still leaves 50.7 million without health coverage and millions more inadequately covered. This is because private insurance profits, unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork over electronic documents consume one-third (31 percent) of every health care dollar.

Greg Silver, MD
(Note: the new Health Care Reform Act now mandates that a health insurance company spends a higher percent of your health care premium for health care services and if they don't spend the premium for medical services then they must rebate that money to the insured. However, it is still less fair than what other industrial countries do with their national healther care programs.) Streamlining payment through a single nonprofit payer would save more than $400 billion per year, enough to provide comprehensive, high-quality coverage for all Americans. Follow this Link to Visit PNHP's Web Site
Lectures by Robert Sapolsky, The John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn
Professor of Biological Sciences and Neurology at Stanford University

Dr. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biology, Neurosurgery, Neurology & Neurological Sciences at Stanford University.  You can now attend Professor Sapolsky eclectic lectures online.   These inspirational lectures cover complex normal and abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, they show us how we can integrate disciplines like sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness. After you watch these lectures, you will understand why Professor Sapolsky was voted by his students to be the best teacher at Stanford University.

The Limbic System

Link to 41 Lectures by Dr. Sapolsky
Stanford University

Robert Sapolsky won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works, and in particular how prolonged stress can cause both physical and mental health problems. Author of seven bestselling books including A Primate’s Memoir and Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, he has made annual trips to Africa for the past twenty three years to study a population of wild baboons and the relationships between their personalities and patterns of stress-related diseases. One of the nation’s top biologists, he is also a wry humanist, and reminds us: “If a rat is a good model for your emotional life, you’re in trouble.”

  How Bacteria Talk
by Dr. Bonnie Bassler, Princeton University

Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine.

In 2002, bearing her microscope on a microbe that lives in the gut of fish, Bonnie Bassler isolated an elusive molecule called AI-2, and uncovered the mechanism behind mysterious behavior called quorum sensing -- or bacterial communication. She showed that bacterial chatter is hardly exceptional or anomalous behavior, as was once thought -- and in fact, most bacteria do it, and most do it all the time. (She calls the signaling molecules "bacterial Esperanto.")

The discovery shows how cell populations use chemical powwows to stage attacks, evade immune systems and forge slimy defenses called biofilms. For that, she's won a MacArthur "genius" grant -- and is giving new hope to frustrated pharmacos seeking new weapons against drug-resistant superbugs.

Bassler teaches molecular biology at Princeton, where she continues her years-long study of V. harveyi, one such social microbe that is mainly responsible for glow-in-the-dark sushi. She also teaches aerobics at the YMCA.

“She's really the one who's shown that this is something that all these bacteria are doing all the time. And if we want to understand them, we have to understand quorum sensing.” — Ned Wingreen, Princeton, on Nova ScienceNOW -- Go To TED Talk


Thirty cents of every dollar spent on U.S. health care -- a total of $750 billion -- was wasted in 2009 on unnecessary services, excessive administrative costs, fraud and other problems, according to the Institute of Medicine. It's enough to cover every uninsured American six times over. What else could it buy? ss
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine" Influenza" was our most recent "near-miss" pandemic. When will it be back? Why are scientists terrified about the H5N1 virus? Why do some scientist believe the H5N1 virus may kill worldwide more than a billion people? Why are newborns and senior citizens more likely to survive a flu pandemic? ss
 "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm".   Henry David Thoreau

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