Anatomy and Physiology Student Resources
Cliff Belleau / Adjunct Instructor at Macomb County Community College

Physiology: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 /// Anatomy: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4

gDrawings by Leonardo da Vinci  /  Renaissance Artist & Scientist (1452 - 1519)


Message Board
Fall Semester 2019


9/14 - Here are "hot list questions" for C7 and C8. Follow these links: C7-HL-Questions and C8-HL-Questions.

9/13 - We have completed all the exam topics for Unit One in lecture! Next week I will not cover any new topics so in lecture you need to come to class prepared to ask questions. As you prepare for the exam this weekend, you should be focused on all the "hot list questions".

9/10 - RE:   Practice Lab at the Learning Center  for Bio 2710 labs starts Thur. Sept. 12th at 12:30 pm. They will remain until Friday Sept. 20th At 12:00 pm /// Make sure you make time to take this practice lab exam!

9/10 - Please Note: C1#19 - What is epigenetics? This is not a "hot list questions".

9/7 - All hot list questions are now posted.

9/6 - Do not email me your chapter study guide answers. You will get no credit if you email me your answers. I will not record your study guide answrs as done unless you bring them to class so I can see them. If you bring them in late then you may get full credit or half credit.

9/4 - Important Notice to All Students: It is not too soon to hit the panic button! This class requires that you learn (i.e. memorize) new factoids as we progress through the unit. So each day, as you come into the lecture room, you should be ready to take an exam on any of the material already presented in lecture. More specifically, you should know the hot list questions from all previous lectures.

I am concerned that some students are not keeping up to this challenge. There is still time for you to be prepare for the first unit exam. But time is your enemy and you need to double down on your effort. I am glad to see most students are writing out the answers to the chapter study guide questions, howevr. If you are not working with other students to edit and improve your answers then I believe you will not be sufficiently prepared for the first unit exam.

Remember, it is all about time on task. There are no short cuts. Learning new material will require an investment of time. For this class it means you must spend two or more hours per day seven days a week to learn and prepare for the unit exams. You will fail this class if you think you can delay and start to prepare for the unit exam several days before the unit exam. You already know my recommendations. If you need help, please ask for help. Carpe diem ("one should do all one can today to make one's future better")

8/31 - Important Notice to All Students: Here is an opportunity to earn another extra bonus point! You will need to complete Chapter 11 Study Guide questions before we start our lecture on C6. This date will be different for the MW and TTh classes. But remember, you need to continue to complete the study guides for my current lectures. Now here you need to trust me. If you decide to do C11 SG now and review the C11 hot list questions daily then you will exponentially increase your odds for an “A” on the first unit exam.

8/27 - To All Students: Don't fall behind. If you do then you will not be able to catch up before the first exam. If you fail the first exam then it is almost impossible to earn an “A” in this class. Remember, your goal is to prepare at home by keeping ahead of my in class lecture schedule. So by the end of this week in class, I should be working on C4 and you should be reading and writing out the answers for C5. I know this is a crazy schedule but this is the way the class is structured by the Science Department.

At the same time, you also need to budget study time at home to prepare for lab. I am seeing too many students using lab time to identify bones and structures in their lab manuals. This should be done at home so when you come into lab you can use lab time to identify the lab learning objectives using the lab's models and wall charts. There is still time to get organized so you can pass this class. But don't delay and start today so you can earn the grade you need in this class.

8/25 - Important Notice to All Students - We changed textbooks this semester and the sequence of the chapter topics in our textbook is different from last semester's book. So I had to edit individual chapter power point slides and re-upload them to the Web site. I think I have everything in there proper place including the chapter study guides. I apologize for any confusion I may have caused. The content in the slides did not change.

8/23 - Lab students - Please review this power point presentation "Intro to Skeletal System". In lab we will use these slides along with our lab resources to identify the following learning objectives: long bone structure, the osteon, bone sinuses, the hyoid bone, spinal curvatures, rib structure, and vertebrae structure. These are all lab learning objectives that you must know for the lab exam.

8/23 - C4 Chapter Study Guide was mislabeled as C3 but the questions were correct. The error was corrected. The genetic and protein synthesis questions are part of C4.

8/22 - C2 Chapter Study Guides are due today for full credit, however. I am not going to complete all of C2 lecture this week so I will accept for full credit C2-CSG next week. But remember, you will need to complete both C3 and C4 for next week. Put in extra time over the weekend to write out your answers for C3 and C4. "Carpe diem" . (i.e. seize the day or "one should do all one can today to make one's future better).

8/19 - Day 1 // You should read chapter one in the text book and preview the C1 lecture slides before coming to class today. You should also complete "most of the C1 chapter study guide questions". You should always bring your textbook and lab manual to class because you will need these resources for your lab work.


My objective is to help all of my students learn physiology and to help my students advance their career goal. I wish all of my students "Good Luck", but remember: "The harder I worked, the luckier I got", Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Car Company.


> Last day for refund:
> Last day to withdraw:




About the "Message Board" ---Throughout the course, I will use this space to post important messages. You will need to check the "Message Board" often (i.e. daily) for updates and corrections.

  How Many Hours Will You Need to Study Daily to Pass This Class?  
  It is all about Time on Task. So in order to learn all the lecture and lab learning objectives, you will need to study two to three hours per day, seven days a week. Remember, this "study time" is an "investment in your future". The Roman poet Horace said famously, "Crape diem" . (i.e. seize the day or "one should do all one can today to make one's future better). Carpe diem!  

Research by the Michigan Educational Association found that a student needs to "study" three hours for each hour in a class lecture. So this then suggest just how much time you need to budget to learn the lecture material in this AP class. You will need a minimum of 12 hours study time per week or approximately two hours per day, seven days per week. Remember, this also includes the days when you are in class!

Research also tells us that it is more beneficial if you study daily instead of skipping several days and then trying to "make up the missed study time" on the weekend by studying six or eight hours. Scientific research support this idea. It is based on synaptic potentiation, memory recall, and memory re-consolidation theories". We know recalling stored information reinforces "the memory trace". This is a nerve pathway which is established in our brains at the first time we place the information (i.e. the factoid) into our memory. Recall and re-consolidation (i.e. retrieving and replacing the memory) reinforces the synaptic connections along the memory trace. This is how the brain works! So if we hope to benefit from our scientific knowledge, then we may need to change our behavior in order to take advantage of this knowledge.

  Is it wise to ignore scientific facts because the facts are inconvenient?  

The purpose of science is to find the truth! Scientist who study classroom learning have discovered how personal digital devices (e.g. cell phones and lap-top computers) in the classroom affect learning. The experimental results are alarming. When digital devices were allowed in the class room, class test results were one full grade lower! So in the interest of both "science and best practices in the lecture room", I prohibit cell phones and personal computers in my lecture classes. No exceptions!

This scientific evidence is not an isolated finding. There is a growing body of evidence to support the negative impact on classroom learning caused by cell phones and personal computers. The negative impact on learning occurs for both the user and those students near the digital user. Even the mere presence of the digital devices, turned off and in the student's backpack, will have negative consequences on the individual. I have provided you with several articles below to support my classroom policy. I realize that for some students this policy may feel unfair or inconvenient. My policy is based on scientific research and is in all of my student's best interest. Please read the reference articles below to learn how digital devices in the classroom harms classroom learning and lowers test scores.

How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds - If you are smart then you will read this article. If you are wise then you will leave your phones at home or in your car when you come into school. "Students who didn't bring their phones to the classroom scored a full letter-grade higher on a test of the material presented than those who brought their phones to class."

Laptop Multi-tasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Users and Nearby Peers -- "Seeking Best Practices in Teaching" means a willingness to apply knowledge to ensure the best possible outcome for your students. This article is my justification for prohibiting laptop computers in my lectures. You can use laptop computers in lab. The "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds" is the justification for my cell phone policy. Sometimes science is inconvenient and in conflict with your personal wishes; but science seeks the truth. I hope you will read the smart-phone and laptop computer articles.

French school children head back to school without their cell phones, smart phones, and tablets. (link to article)

  Reference Links:  
> WileyPLUS Registration Instructions  
> MC3 Library Hours - F2019  
  In The News:  
>> Inequity in the United States now eclipse the "Gilded Age" of the 1890s with the unfettered capitalism of Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan. No society and no democracy has lasted with such extreme inequities. Furthermore, there is an intersection where health and inequity meet. We have the scientific data to illustrate why and how inequities in a society negatively impacts health and increases disease. The article, A Rigged Economy, explains how extreme inequities in the United States occurred over time and suggest how we can restore a more balanced economy. The article, The Health-Wealth Gap, explains how poverty by itself does not cause disease but when povery is linked to low social economic status so those with little are surrounded by those with wealth (i.e. inequities) then the low SES will causes disease and reduces life expectancy.  
>> TED Talk by Rutger Bergman - The author of Utopia for Realist /// Mr. Bergman explains in his talk how poverty can be overcome with gaurenteed income and how this will improve both health and social order.  
>> Hypothesis Targets Porphyromonas gingivalis (bacteria in mouth) as Causative Agent for Alzheimer Disease // Artcle 2  
> Malady Mongers: How Drug Companies Sell Treatments by Inventing Diseases  
> Update 2018: Why Is Healthcare So Expensive in United States?  
> America's Health Care Comes in Last Again - Most Expensive and Delivers Worst Outcomes  


Health Care Resources & Other Special Topic
Anatomy and Physiology Students

  BioInteractive Home Page  
  Follow this link (What is BioInteractive?) to learn about an amazing "science resource portal". It is the work of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. It has a teaching mission but also provides research grants to scientist working in human physiology and medicine. Their novel approach to funding scientist has produced significant results with a steady stream of Noble Prize Winners. This link ( will take you to a catalog of videos produced by HHMI. The link at the top of this section (highlighted in grey) will take you directly to BioInteractive's Home Page. This is a must visit Web site!  
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  
The CDC should be your first source for information about disease and wellness. This site is designed to provide valuable healthcare information to physicians as well as to the general public. The CDC also reports on emerging diseases around the world and in the United States. BioInteractive
  National Institutes of Health  
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation’s medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives. The NIH is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. For over a century, NIH scientists have paved the way for important discoveries that improve health and save lives.
  American Council on Science & Health  
The American Council on Science and Health was founded in 1978 by a group of scientists with a singular mission – to provide an evidence-based counterpoint to the wave of anti-science claims that became the calling card of fundraising groups who were using mass media to promote fear about topics such as food, energy and medicine. These scientists created an organization that could add data and reason to debates about science and public health issues and to provide that data to policy makers and the public. ACSH is a national, non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) education and advocacy organization based in New York City.
  Food and Drug Administration  

FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA's organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations.

  Kaiser Family Foundation  
Kaiser is a non-profit organization focusing on national health issues, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own policy analysis, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with major news organizations. We serve as a non-partisan source of facts, analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media,  the health
policy community and the public. Our product is information, always provided free of charge — from the most sophisticated policy research, to basic facts and numbers, to in depth health policy news coverage provided by our news service, KHN, to information young people can use to improve their health or the general public can use to understand the health reform law. Our core mission is filling the need for trusted information about Health Issues
PharMedOut is a Georgetown University Medical Center project that advances evidence-based prescribing and educates healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical marketing practices. PharMedOut promotes evidence-based medicine by providing slideshows, videos, events, and links to pharma-free CME courses. (Founded by Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman)
"In Sick Around the World, Frontline teams up with veteran Washington Post foreign correspondent T.R. Reid to find out how five other capitalist democracies --(United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan and Switzerland) -- deliver health care, and what the United States might learn from their successes and their failures." April 15, 2008   Follow this link:
Their mission is to educate citizens about the benefits of a Single-Payer National Health Program. The U.S. spends twice as much as other industrialized nations on health care, $8,160 per capita. Yet our system performs poorly in comparison and still leaves 50.7 million without health coverage and millions more inadequately covered. This is because private insurance profits, unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork over electronic documents consume one-third (31 percent) of every health care dollar.

Greg Silver, MD
(Note: the new Health Care Reform Act now mandates that a health insurance company spends a higher percent of your health care premium for health care services and if they don't spend the premium for medical services then they must rebate that money to the insured. However, it is still less fair than what other industrial countries do with their national healther care programs.) Streamlining payment through a single nonprofit payer would save more than $400 billion per year, enough to provide comprehensive, high-quality coverage for all Americans. Follow this Link to Visit PNHP's Web Site
Lectures by Dr. Robert Sapolsky, The John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn
Professor of Biological Sciences and Neurology at Stanford University

Dr. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biology, Neurosurgery, Neurology & Neurological Sciences at Stanford University.  You can now attend Professor Sapolsky eclectic lectures online.   These inspirational lectures cover complex normal and abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, they show us how we can integrate disciplines like sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness. After you watch these lectures, you will understand why Professor Sapolsky was voted by his students to be the best teacher at Stanford University.

The Limbic System

Link to 41 Lectures by Dr. Sapolsky
Stanford University

Robert Sapolsky won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works, and in particular how prolonged stress can cause both physical and mental health problems. Author of seven bestselling books including A Primate’s Memoir and Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, he has made annual trips to Africa for the past twenty three years to study a population of wild baboons and the relationships between their personalities and patterns of stress-related diseases. One of the nation’s top biologists, he is also a wry humanist, and reminds us: “If a rat is a good model for your emotional life, you’re in trouble.”

  How Bacteria Talk
by Dr. Bonnie Bassler, Princeton University

Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine.

In 2002, bearing her microscope on a microbe that lives in the gut of fish, Bonnie Bassler isolated an elusive molecule called AI-2, and uncovered the mechanism behind mysterious behavior called quorum sensing -- or bacterial communication. She showed that bacterial chatter is hardly exceptional or anomalous behavior, as was once thought -- and in fact, most bacteria do it, and most do it all the time. (She calls the signaling molecules "bacterial Esperanto.")



The discovery shows how cell populations use chemical powwows to stage attacks, evade immune systems and forge slimy defenses called biofilms. For that, she's won a MacArthur "genius" grant -- and is giving new hope to frustrated pharmacos seeking new weapons against drug-resistant superbugs.

Bassler teaches molecular biology at Princeton, where she continues her years-long study of V. harveyi, one such social microbe that is mainly responsible for glow-in-the-dark sushi. She also teaches aerobics at the YMCA.

“She's really the one who's shown that this is something that all these bacteria are doing all the time. And if we want to understand them, we have to understand quorum sensing.” — Ned Wingreen, Princeton, on Nova ScienceNOW -- Go To TED Talk


Thirty cents of every dollar spent on U.S. health care -- a total of $750 billion -- was wasted in 2009 on unnecessary services, excessive administrative costs, fraud and other problems, according to the Institute of Medicine. It's enough to cover every uninsured American six times over. What else could it buy? ss
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine" Influenza" was our most recent "near-miss" pandemic. When will it be back? Why are scientists terrified about the H5N1 virus? Why do some scientist believe the H5N1 virus may kill worldwide more than a billion people? Why are newborns and senior citizens more likely to survive a flu pandemic? ss
Harvard Health Publishing by Harvard Medical School
This web site is a trusted reaource for advise about living a healthier life. You may use this site to start your search for trusted information on a broad range of topics: heart health, mind and mood, pain, nutrition, staying healthy, cancer, diseases, men's health, wormen's health, and much more.

OpenBiome mission is to be the trusted brand in bringing improved health through microbiome solutions. If you are a student looking for an exciting career in science, then you may want to think about working for a biotech company.

 "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm".   Henry David Thoreau