Anatomy and Physiology Student Resources
Cliff Belleau MS / Adjunct Instructor at Macomb County Community College -- email

"If you ever hear yourself saying, 'I think I understand this,' that means you don't."
Dr. Richard Feynman PhD, Nobel Prize Theoretical Physics

Course Content 

Lecture: Unit 1 /// Unit 2 /// Unit 3 /// Unit 4 > Lab: Unit 1 /// Unit 2 /// Unit 3 /// Unit 4

First Day Orientation /// My Teaching Philosophy




Message Board - Throughout the course, I will use this space to post important messages. You will need to check the "Message Board" daily for updates and corrections. "Carpe diem" 

3/22 - We have just completed the halfway mark in this class. The second unit's lecture exam was a disaster. However, it is still my goal for everyone to be able to earn a passing grade (C or better) in this class. Now is the time to double down and invest more time in your future. So, here is the deal. I am going to break the third unit into two exam sections. The first section will be C18-C19-C22. You will be required to complete these study guide chapters ASAP. You need to write your answers (hand written not typed) in detail" on a separate piece of paper. You will need to submit your work to me to review but I will not correct your answers. You will need to review your work with other students to check for correctness. You will be tested on C18-C19-C22. in "Two Weeks". And you will be able to use your chapter study guide answers on this exam!

I will have more to say about C20 and C21 next week.

I gave you a list of questions for the replacement exam. You need to make flash cards for all these questions. I need to review this work by the end of next week. I will have more to say about the replacement exam next week.

There is still hope for everyone to pass this class but you need to do exactly what I ask you to do. I need the stronger students to help the weaker students and I need the weaker students to ask for help. We need a team effort. And everybody needs to invest more time in this effort. This is for your future. Use your brain and "time travel" forward to four years from now and look at where you land. Do you want to still be at Macomb or do you want to be a student at a nursing school or medical school preparing for your next lecture. "Carpe diem" 

3/18 - Important Message > The Lectture Exam will be in CN-210 at 12:00PM. Please come to class a few minutes early so you may log onto the computer before the start of the exam.

3/18 - Next Thursday, I will ask you to write the homeostasis definition for "one ext point" to be added to unit two grade. After the Unit Two Exam, I will post a list of HL Questions for the "replacement exam". The "replacement exam" will be taken two weeks before the Unit Four Exam.

3/16 - The lab exam class average is 77% (before bonus points). This is a 10% improvement over the first lab exam's average. So, congratulation for a job well done! Lets set a goal to have 85% for the third unit exam class average. You can do it. Lab scores are now posed in Canvas without your "homework bonus points". I will add the bonus points after you take the lecture exam.

The lecture exam will be on Tuesday. Go directly to the computer testing site on Tuesday. Try to arrive early so you can log onto the computer before we start the exam at 12:00 PM sharp.

Use your time wisely as you prepare for the lecture exam. Here is my recommendation. Start with C12 and review all the lecture slides through C17 daily. As you review the slides reference your study guide answers. Remember, slides with red starts indicate potential lecture questions as well as red text. There are a lot of slides so it will take a lot of time, maybe three hours, however. This is the best way to prepare for the exam. If you can also meet with several students to have a discussion session, the more you can do the better the reward.

3/10 Extra Credit Assignment (Due by Sunday Midnight!) Watch the video and complete the worksheet for extra credit
The Neuroscience of Memory by Eleanor Maguire /// Worksheet

Dr. Maguire's lecture is at the Royal Institute. This is the most famous lecture hall in the world. It is where in 1815 Michael Faraday became the director of the Royal Institute and conducted public science demonstrations. Faraday is still considered to be the greatest experimental physicist of all time. His inversions include the electric motor, refrigeration, generators, benzene, the Faraday Cage, and many others. The desk at the front of the room is the same desk used by Faraday!

3/2 - This is the first of two extra credit video assignments. (the other video will be posted next Friday). You may never have an opportunity to spend an hour again with a person as brilliant or respected as Dr. Robert Sapolsky. He is considered to be the worlds leading authority on the brain structure and function.This is a lecture about the biology of behavior. Watch the video and complete the worksheet answers along with a short paragraph about what you liked most about this lecture. The Biology of Humans at Our Best and Worst /// You will need to watch the video and submit your answers to the worksheet before 10PM on Sunday Worksheet

I will post a second extra credit video on 3/10 with instructions.

3/1 - For Spring Break, the learning center and library will be open 8am-4pm Monday through Thursday. There will not be tutoring sessions during the break, but I am leaving all of the models out and practices for students to use during this time! I will make sure to make extra worksheet copies as well to have enough for next week! /// Saso Krstovski - Lead Biology Tutor - Learning Centers | Macomb Community College // 586-286-2787

3/1 - Thursday's 3/2 Goals
Lecture > You need to prepare for Thursday's lecture by reading Chapter 16 Special Senses and completing the chapter study guide questions. Make sure you bring your answers to class.

Lab > I will use the first 30 minutes to complete the ANS lecture. You will have the last hour to identify all the special senses learning objectives. I will work with students to point out all the special senses learning objectives. Pro-dissections of the cow's eye and sheep's brain will also be on display for you to examin on Thursday. Please preview the supplemental dissection guides I have provided for you in the Unit Two Lab resource section.

Please Note: Next week is our Spring Break so we will have no classes. Use this time wisely to prepare for the Unit Two Exams. After the break, we will use Tuesday to cover the endorine system. We will have little time for a Q&A session before the Unit Two Exam on Thursday. You should plan to meet with other students during the Sprin Break (may be when you would meet for our regular class time) to quiz each other using your study guide questions and answers.

2/25 - Please do not emial me your extra credit assignments. Bring all your work to class on Tuesday. Thanks.

2/24 - C17 Endocrinology is the last chapter we cover before the Unit 2 Lecture Exam. You will need to memorize the origin, target tissue, and action of 16 hormones. Eight of these hormones will be on the unit exam. So, I strongly suggest you make flash cards to learn these hormones. I have provided all the "answers" for these hormones. You need to start working on this now. See C17 Hormone Answer Sheet

2/23 - Yikes! No school today. This is a problem because we will miss a lecture and lab session. So, here is what you need to do.

For Lecture: Review & study C14's four lecture power point slide sessions. Complete C14 study guide questions and be prepared to submit you answer on Tuesday 28th. // Review and study C15 lecture power point slide session. Complete C15 study guide questions and be prepared to submit you answers on Tuesday 28th.

For Lab: Use the Web site lab resources to complete your "first pass review" of all lab learning objectives. All the important lab models and charts are posted on the Web site. Most of the model learning modules have practice quiz sheets to help you prepare for the lab exam. Because of the weather event, we will need to use some of our lab time to catch up to the lecture schedule. You may find "make up time" by working on the physical modelsin the Learning Center.

Extra Credit Video Assignment > 1) Brain Over Mind? (20 min) // Dr. David Eagleman // TED Talk: Can We Create New Senses for Humans? (20 min) // Write a paragraph with two key take away ideas from each video. Be prepared to share these with the class (for complete credit).

Please Note: The Unit Two Lecture and Lab exams are right around the corner. If you can complete all of this work by next Tuesday then you will be better positioned going into the unit exam. I will check my email in the morning and afternoon. If you complete and submit all the assignments (C14 and C15 study guide answers completed plus submit both video assignments by Sunday night then you will earn significant bonus points.)

2/21 - Tuesday's Lecture Goal = First Hour - Finish C13 Spinal Cord // You need to watch these short videos about reflexes before coming to class on the 21st (less than 10 min to watch all four videos):
> Spinal Reflex Arc
> The Stretch Reflex
> Flexor (Withdrawl) Reflex

> .Cross Extensor Reflex

Tuesday's second lecture hour: Start C14 The Brain > C14 will require three hours to cover all topics. Please preview C14 lecture slides before coming to class. The powerpoint slides covering brain structure will be reviewed during our lab session.

Tuesday's Lab Goals: Review previous models studied then focus on learning brain structure.

Extra credit assignment due by Sunday night at 8 PM (Weekend Extra Credit Assignment: (Due date Sunday, February 19th no later than 8 PM) Watch Memories Are Made of This // Dr. Eric Kandel and write paragraph explaining what you learned from watching this video)

2/15 - Thursday's Lecture Goals = First hour complete review of C12 lecture power-point slides. Make sure you bring your C12 Study Guide Questions. I want to see your C12 study guide answers. // Second hour cover C13 Spinal Cord and Reflexes. You should preview C13 lecture slides and work on C13 study guide questions.

For Thursday's lab goals = Preview Lab Learning Objectives for spinal cord and the "big brain model". Photos of these models are posted on the Web site. Quiz sheets are included with the photos for these models.

Quiz for "1" extra credit point > You need to write this section of my definition for homeostasis (word for word!). We will do this at the beginning of our lab session. > Homeostasis is the ability of a system to resist change. In the human body, our organs function to resist change in the internal environment. This is the interstitial fluid that surrounds our cells. The interstitial fluid is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Some organs bring nutrients to the interstitial fluid, where they are then transported into the cell's cytoplasm. The cells then metabolize these nutrients for growth, repair, or to make new cells. (Note: the final section will be included during the 3rd unit quiz)

Weekend Extra Credit Assignment: (Due date Sunday, February 19th no later than 8 PM) Watch Memories Are Made of This // Dr. Eric Kandel and write paragraph explaining what you learned from watching this video.

2/9 - About the Exams >> Preparation + Opportunity = Success >> There were some good test scores on the lab and lecture exams. So to those students, congratulations for your efforts. However, there were to many poor scores. Someone once said that failure is never a measure of intelligence; failure measures the lack of preparation or the need to prepare better. Fortunately, everybody is "still in the game" because you can take a replacement exam at the beginning of the fourth unit. The replacement exam may be used to replace one of the earlier unit exams. This means if you failed the first unit then you need to go back and learn this material as you keep up with the new lessons. You can do this only if you need it!

I will have more to say about the replacement exam in class.

Link to previous messages removed from message board


> Last day for refund >> : Second Wednesday after class start!  

> Last day to withdraw >> In order to properly withdraw from a class, the student must complete and submit the class withdrawal on Self Service Student Planning or in person at the Office of Records & Registration. Non-payment or non-attendance does not constitute a proper withdrawal and students who stop paying and/or attending classes without properly withdrawing will be held financially and academically responsible for the class(es)....



    How Many Hours Will You Need to Study Daily to Pass This Class?  
    Learning is all about "Time on Task" > In order to learn the lecture and lab objectives, you will need to study two to three hours per day, seven days a week for the next 16 weeks! This recommendation is taken from research data collected by the Michigan Educational Association. Remember, this is "study time" and does not include the time in class for the lab and lecture. Study time is the "investment you are making in your future". The Roman poet Horace said famously, "Carpe diem" . (i.e. seize the day or "one should do all one can today to make one's future better). Carpe diem!  

Key Idea: Neuroscience research discovered that it is more beneficial if you study daily. If you skip five two hour daily study times, but then try to make up for lost daily study time by spending one ten hour study time later in the week does not work. The benefit of the daily study time idea is based on how your brain works: synaptic potentiation, memory recall, and memory re-consolidation. We know recalling stored information reinforces "the memory trace". This is a nerve pathway which is established in our brains as we place information (i.e. the factoid) into our memory. Recall and re-consolidation (i.e. retrieving and replacing the memory) reinforces the synaptic connections along the memory trace. This is how the brain works! "Neurons that fire together wire together". So if we hope to benefit from our scientific knowledge, then we should be willing to change our behavior.

    Is it wise to ignore scientific facts because the scientific facts are inconvenient?  

The purpose of science is to find the truth! Researchers who study classroom learning have discovered how personal digital devices (e.g. cell phones and lap-top computers) affect learning in the lecture class. The experimental results are alarming. When digital devices were allowed in the class room, class test results were one full grade lower! So in the interest of both "science and best practices in the lecture room", I prohibit cell phones and personal computers in my lecture classes. No exceptions!

This scientific evidence is not an isolated finding. There is a growing body of evidence all suggesting the negative impact of digital devices on classroom learning. The negative impact on learning occurs for both the user and those students near the digital user. Even the mere presence of the digital devices, turned off and in the student's backpack, will have negative consequences on the individual. I have provided you with several articles below to support my classroom policy. I realize that for some students this policy may feel unfair or inconvenient. My policy is based on scientific research and is in my student's best interest. Please read the reference articles below to learn how digital devices in the classroom harms classroom learning and lowers test scores.

How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds - If you are smart then you will read this article. If you are wise then you will leave your phones at home or in your car when you come into school. "Students who didn't bring their phones to the classroom scored a full letter-grade higher on a test of the material presented than those who brought their phones to class."

Laptop Multi-tasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Users and Nearby Peers -- "Seeking Best Practices in Teaching" means a willingness to apply knowledge to ensure the best possible outcome for your students. This article is my justification for prohibiting laptop computers in my lectures. You can use laptop computers in lab. The "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds" is the justification for my cell phone policy. Sometimes science is inconvenient and in conflict with your personal wishes; but science seeks the truth. I hope you will read the smart-phone and laptop computer articles.

French school children head back to school without their cell phones, smart phones, and tablets. (link to article)

Digital Addiction: Rising rates of depression and anxiety in wealthy countries like the U.S. may be a result of our brains getting hooked on the neurotransmitter associated with pleasure  

    Reference Links:  
>   Medical Dictionary //  
>   "" Hear the words pronounced. There are currently 154,680 entries in the dictionary.  
>   WileyPLUS Registration Instructions  
>>   Peer Instruction > Dr. Eric Mazur PhD Phisics at Harvard // How he reinvented the classroom!  
>   MC3 Library Hours -W2022  
    In The News:  
>>   Best Mask to Protect From Omicron Variant  
>>   How Long Can You Wear N95 Before You Dispose Mask and How to Extend Use  
>>   New Vaccine Developed at $1 Cost Per Shot VS $25 For Other Big Pharma Vaccines  
>>   Inequity in the United States now eclipse the "Gilded Age" of the 1890s with the unfettered capitalism of Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan. In our collective history, no society and no democracy has lasted with such extreme inequities. Furthermore, there is an intersection where health and inequity meet. We have the scientific data to illustrate why and how inequities in a society negatively impacts health and increases disease. The article, A Rigged Economy, explains how extreme inequities in the United States occurred over time and suggest how we can restore a more balanced economy. The article, The Health-Wealth Gap, explains how poverty by itself does not cause disease but when povery is linked to low social economic status so those with little are surrounded by those with wealth (i.e. inequities) then the low SES will causes disease and reduces life expectancy.  
>>   TED Talk by Rutger Bergman - The author of Utopia for Realist /// Mr. Bergman explains in his talk how poverty can be overcome with gaurenteed income and how this will improve both health and social order.  
>>   Hypothesis Targets Porphyromonas gingivalis (bacteria in mouth) as Causative Agent for Alzheimer Disease // Artcle 2  
>   Malady Mongers: How Drug Companies Sell Treatments by Inventing Diseases  
>   Update 2018: Why Is Healthcare So Expensive in United States?  
>   America's Health Care Comes in Last Again - Most Expensive and Delivers Worst Outcomes  
>>   Here Are Two Affirmations You Should Repeat at the Start of Every Day!  
>   The Man in the Arena (Part of Teddy Roosevelt's 1910 Speech)  
>   Congressman John Lewis Farewell Speech  


Health Care & Other Resources
Anatomy and Physiology Students

  BioInteractive Home Page  
  Follow this link (What is BioInteractive?) to learn about an amazing "science resource portal". It is the work of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. It has a teaching mission but also provides research grants to scientist working in human physiology and medicine. Their novel approach to funding scientist has produced significant results with a steady stream of Noble Prize Winners. This link ( will take you to a catalog of videos produced by HHMI. The link at the top of this section (highlighted in grey) will take you directly to BioInteractive's Home Page. This is a must visit Web site!  
  Royal Instition of Great Britian  
  The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London. It was founded in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president, George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea. The lecture hall at the Royal Institute is considered the most famous lecture hall in the world! (Lecture Series on "Being Human")  
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  
The CDC should be your first source for information about disease and wellness. This site is designed to provide valuable healthcare information to physicians as well as to the general public. The CDC also reports on emerging diseases around the world and in the United States. BioInteractive
  National Institutes of Health  
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation’s medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives. The NIH is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. For over a century, NIH scientists have paved the way for important discoveries that improve health and save lives..
  American Council on Science & Health  
The American Council on Science and Health was founded in 1978 by a group of scientists with a singular mission – to provide an evidence-based counterpoint to the wave of anti-science claims that became the calling card of fundraising groups who were using mass media to promote fear about topics such as food, energy and medicine. These scientists created an organization that could add data and reason to debates about science and public health issues and to provide that data to policy makers and the public. ACSH is a national, non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) education and advocacy organization based in New York City.
  Food and Drug Administration  

FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA's organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations.

  Kaiser Family Foundation  
Kaiser is a non-profit organization focusing on national health issues, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own policy analysis, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with major news organizations. We serve as a non-partisan source of facts, analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media,  the health
policy community and the public. Our product is information, always provided free of charge — from the most sophisticated policy research, to basic facts and numbers, to in depth health policy news coverage provided by our news service, KHN, to information young people can use to improve their health or the general public can use to understand the health reform law. Our core mission is filling the need for trusted information about Health Issues
PharMedOut is a Georgetown University Medical Center project that advances evidence-based prescribing and educates healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical marketing practices. PharMedOut promotes evidence-based medicine by providing slideshows, videos, events, and links to pharma-free CME courses. (Founded by Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman)
"In Sick Around the World, Frontline teams up with veteran Washington Post foreign correspondent T.R. Reid to find out how five other capitalist democracies --(United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan and Switzerland) -- deliver health care, and what the United States might learn from their successes and their failures." April 15, 2008   Follow this link:
Their mission is to educate citizens about the benefits of a Single-Payer National Health Program. The U.S. spends twice as much as other industrialized nations on health care, $8,160 per capita. Yet our system performs poorly in comparison and still leaves 50.7 million without health coverage and millions more inadequately covered. This is because private insurance profits, unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork over electronic documents consume one-third (31 percent) of every health care dollar.

Greg Silver, MD
(Note: the new Health Care Reform Act now mandates that a health insurance company spends a higher percent of your health care premium for health care services and if they don't spend the premium for medical services then they must rebate that money to the insured. However, it is still less fair than what other industrial countries do with their national healther care programs.) Streamlining payment through a single nonprofit payer would save more than $400 billion per year, enough to provide comprehensive, high-quality coverage for all Americans. Follow this Link to Visit PNHP's Web Site
Lectures by Dr. Robert Sapolsky, The John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn
Professor of Biological Sciences and Neurology at Stanford University

Dr. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biology, Neurosurgery, Neurology & Neurological Sciences at Stanford University.  You can now attend Professor Sapolsky eclectic lectures online.   These inspirational lectures cover complex normal and abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, they show us how we can integrate disciplines like sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness. After you watch these lectures, you will understand why Professor Sapolsky was voted by his students to be the best teacher at Stanford University.

The Limbic System

Link to 27 Lectures by Dr. Sapolsky
Stanford University

Robert Sapolsky won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works, and in particular how prolonged stress can cause both physical and mental health problems. Author of seven bestselling books including A Primate’s Memoir and Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, he has made annual trips to Africa for the past twenty three years to study a population of wild baboons and the relationships between their personalities and patterns of stress-related diseases. One of the nation’s top biologists, he is also a wry humanist, and reminds us: “If a rat is a good model for your emotional life, you’re in trouble.”

  How Bacteria Talk
by Dr. Bonnie Bassler, Princeton University

Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine.

In 2002, bearing her microscope on a microbe that lives in the gut of fish, Bonnie Bassler isolated an elusive molecule called AI-2, and uncovered the mechanism behind mysterious behavior called quorum sensing -- or bacterial communication. She showed that bacterial chatter is hardly exceptional or anomalous behavior, as was once thought -- and in fact, most bacteria do it, and most do it all the time. (She calls the signaling molecules "bacterial Esperanto.")



The discovery shows how cell populations use chemical powwows to stage attacks, evade immune systems and forge slimy defenses called biofilms. For that, she's won a MacArthur "genius" grant -- and is giving new hope to frustrated pharmacos seeking new weapons against drug-resistant superbugs.

Bassler teaches molecular biology at Princeton, where she continues her years-long study of V. harveyi, one such social microbe that is mainly responsible for glow-in-the-dark sushi. She also teaches aerobics at the YMCA.

“She's really the one who's shown that this is something that all these bacteria are doing all the time. And if we want to understand them, we have to understand quorum sensing.” — Ned Wingreen, Princeton, on Nova ScienceNOW -- Go To TED Talk


Thirty cents of every dollar spent on U.S. health care -- a total of $750 billion -- was wasted in 2009 on unnecessary services, excessive administrative costs, fraud and other problems, according to the Institute of Medicine. It's enough to cover every uninsured American six times over. What else could it buy? ss
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine" Influenza" was our most recent "near-miss" pandemic. When will it be back? Why are scientists terrified about the H5N1 virus? Why do some scientist believe the H5N1 virus may kill worldwide more than a billion people? Why are newborns and senior citizens more likely to survive a flu pandemic? ss
Harvard Health Publishing by Harvard Medical School
This web site is a trusted reaource for advise about living a healthier life. You may use this site to start your search for trusted information on a broad range of topics: heart health, mind and mood, pain, nutrition, staying healthy, cancer, diseases, men's health, wormen's health, and much more.

OpenBiome mission is to be the trusted brand in bringing improved health through microbiome solutions. If you are a student looking for an exciting career in science, then you may want to think about working for a biotech company...

Self-Pace "Master Class" on SARS-CoVID-19

The SARS-CoVID-19 virus (yellow spheres) emerge from host cell after replication. (scanning electron microscope image) After replication, thousands of newly formed virus leave the dead host cell to infect thousands of new healthy host cells. Follow the status of the CoVID-19 pandemic on the Wuhan Dashboards (see below). If you are curious, then you must watch the first two video links below. They are both "best in their class".

>> Sars-CoVid-2 Animation About the Virus, Infection, Detection and Vaccinations by BioInteractive
>> Corona Virus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics - Part 1 // (50 min.) - Great Lecture!!!

>>Omicron: The Case of Hidden Evolution (Surprise, the Omicron Virus Did Not Evolve From Delta Variant)

>> Wuhan CoVID19 Worldwide Dashboard
>> Tracking CoVID19 Across US by State and County Dashboard
>> Learn More >>> Follow this link to find videos and articles about CoVID-19.

 "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm"..   Henry David Thoreau

How I Used My "Pandemic Time Away From School" to Build a Duplex
Site Preparation /// Sewer, Water, and Driveway /// Detached Garage
Foundation & Mason Work
/// Framing /// Front Gable Video