Anatomy and Physiology Student Resources
Cliff Belleau / Adjunct Instructor at Macomb County Community College

Physiology: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 /// Anatomy: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4

"If you ever hear yourself saying, 'I think I understand this,' that means you don't."
Dr. Richard Feynman PhD, Nobel prize theoretical physics


Wuhan CoVID19 Worldwide Dashboard

Image of Coronavirus COVID-19. This scanning electron microscope image shows the corona-virus that causes COVID-19 in yellow, isolated from a patient in the U.S., as it emerges from the surface of other cells cultured in the lab.

Update (3/4/2020): Global death rate for CoVID-19 based on the latest firgures is 3.4% /// higher than ealier figues of about 2% /// Note - seasonal flu kills 0.1% of those infected

>> Corona Virus: Epidemiology, Pathophysiology, Diagnostics - Part 1 // (video - 50 min.) - Very Important Information
>> Corona Virus: Treatment, Prognosis, Precautions. - Part II
>> CoVID19 CDC Illustration with Captions
>> CoVID19 Review Article (Please Read)
>> New Scientific Approach to Make Vaccine Against CoVID19 (Please Read!)
>> Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
>> National Institutes of Health
>> Symptoms, Prevention, and Transmission Poster
>> CoVID-19 Scanning Electron Microscope Image (see the crown!)
>> CoVID-19 Structure (Illustration)
>> Anatomy of the avian flu virus (also an RNA virus)
>> Virus Are Neither Dead or Alive But Only Active or Inactive: The Virion Reproductive Cycle.
>> Seven Reasonable Anti-CoVID-19 Suggestions Made by "Preppers" (Things You Can Do!)..
>> How to make your own hand sanitizer.. (6 min video)
>> Possible Origin of SARS-CoVID-19


Message Board
Winter Semester 2020 /// Cell Phone 586.549.0583


4/7 (10:30) - Access Code for today's quiz = U3C20C22

4/7 (9AM) - Sample Grade Calculation

4/6 (7PM) - The quiz on C20 and C22 opens tomorrow at 6AM and will be open until 11PM. You will need to start immediately on the homework assignments for C21. I am adding some "feature lecture slides with audio comments" to add content to the regular lecture slides. You should study the lecture slides first and then hopefully, slides with audio will help you better understand the lecture slides. I have included some outstanding videos for the immune system and I believe these videos will complement our lecture slides and chapter study guide questions. We will have a quiz covering C21 on Saturday.

You will need to start working on Unit 4 material ASAP. I am still working on finalizing some of the content for Unit 4. This unit covers too much information for us to coverer all the learning objectives. I want you to use the lecture slides and other resources to answer all of the chapter study guides in Unit 4. Because there will only be one exam to cover the six chapters in Unit 4, I will post a shorter list of study guide questions that will be the test bank for the Unit 4 Lecture Exam. (Available starting 4/7).

I know everyone is under a lot of stress and this is a very difficult class in the best of times. So stay focused. We have only 23 days to the end of the semester. Students have asked me how your overall grade will be calculated. This is a very good questions since I have never had a semester quite like this. I will post tomorrow a formula that I will use to calculate your grades. My goal is to be fair and I want you to find a balance between you test scores and the many homework assignments you have done throughout the semester.

4/5 (9 PM) - So, I am curious. Why are you not willing to follow my directions. I asked you to compare your study guide and video worksheets answer with other students before you submit your work. As I "spot check" your work, some of the work is outstanding. Unfortunately, most answers are incomplete at best and far to many answers are wrong.

I hope you realize it is impossible for me to correct all these assignments and to assign a letter grade for your work. So I am willing to give you credit for doing the work. And I will be more than fair with all my students. But I am not looking for junk in and junk out. So if you put down wrong answers and this is what you study and learn then what have you accomplished. Absolutely nothing. I have failed and you have failed. This should not be our standard.

I have posted times when I am available to answer your questions online. When I am waiting online to answer student questions, often not a single person logs onto Discord to ask me a questions. I understand many students are still working and some students work in healthcare. We owe everyone working in healthcare our gratitude for their service. But I believe your education is also important. Students have posted list of study guide questions for me so I can give them the answers. Well this is not the way it is suppose to work. I am looking for you to tell me what you think the answer is and then I will correct your answeror or add content, and point you in the right direction. If you don't value your education then I can not help you.

On the first day of class I said that I will teach but you will need to put in the time if you expect to learn human physiology. So I will try one more time. Please network with other students and compare you answers before you submit them to me. And if you have not done this for C20 - C22 and have already submitted your homework then that's OK. You still have time to network with students, compare your answers, and be better prepared for the quiz on Tuesday. I know some students have made an effort to meet with other students. But in life, you are not rewarded for effort. You are only rewarded for your accomplishments.

4/4 (2PM) - I am experimenting with making instructional videos to cover specific topics. These are far from professional but I hope they help. The first attempt in on a summary graphic for adaptive immunity. See first attempt: Part 1 and Part 2 (Note: These are huge files so they may take 30 sec to load. These are MPG files.)

4/4 (10:30AM) - Make sure you complete the Unit 3 Lab Assignment 2 by 11PM today. /// Also, you need to turn in by tomorrow the Unit 2 Lecture Exam plus all assignments for C20 and C22. The quiz for C20 and C22 will be open on Tuesday (4/4).

I just completed the video worksheets for C21 (lymphatic and immune system's). This is the most important information you will learn in this class. This information will help you understand how our physiology tries to protect us from disease and why people die from CoVID19.

4/3 (9AM) - In these troubled times, please take two minutes to close your eyes, open your heart, listen to this song, and believe in the future.

We will have the quiz covering C21 (lymphatic and immune systems) on Sunday, April 12th. I know your focus is on and should be on C20 and C22, however. You also need to start to study C21. (Remember, if we were following the original class schedule then we would have completed Unit 3 on April 9th.) We will have approximately 18 days to complete the learning objectives in Unit 4. So please use your time wisely and make an effort to network with you classmates to discuss study guide questions. If you are having problems with specific information, please ask for help.

4/3 (7:30AM) - Unit 3 Lab Assignments 2 are due April 4th. Try to complete lab assignments today to avoid any problems which might occur and prevent you from earning your lab points.

I have tried to make myself available at different times throughout the day to answer student questions. This strategy has not worked since few or no students are able to meet me at the posted time. So how can I help? If you have a group meeting on Discord then you may invite me to join your group to help you answer questions. At this time, your focus should be on C20 and C22 (test on this info next Tuesday).

Unit 2 Lecture Exam (the video assignments posted in Unit 2 lecture page) is due no later than this Sunday at 5PM. So lets get this done ASAP.

4/1 (3PM) - I will be online tomorrow at 10AM, 2PM, and 6PM to answer questions on C20 and C22. .You should have C22 done by Friday and you should complete the Unit 2 Lecture Video Worksheets by Sunday. You will have a quiz on C20 and C22 on Tuesday (4/7/2020). I hope to have all the C21 Video Worksheet posted by tomorrow.

4/1 (7AM) - Important Student Request / Please Read and Respond ASAP

3/30 (6:45 PM) - Tomorrow we have Unit 3 Lecture Quiz C18 +C19. You will log onto Canvas, Click on the C18-C19 quiz, it will take you to Connect, you will provide a code "U3C18C19" that will allow you to open the lecture quiz. The quiz will be open from 6AM to 11PM. There are 60 questions and you have 60 minutes. You must read the questions, select an answer, and keep moving. When you submit your quiz then you will get your score.

You should complete C20 and C22 homework assignments (chapter study guides and video worksheets ASAP). Most students have already completed C20 and about a 1/3 of the students have C22..

Next Tuesday we will have a lecture quiz on C20 and C22. I am adding one more video assignment C22.

Please Note: I want to spend some extra time to cover C21 (Lymphatic System and Immunity). This information is critical so you may understand how bacteria and virus cause disease. What could be more important today? So I know I am asking you to work simultaneously on several assignments. Don't get frustrated just keep working. I still hope students make an effort to use Discord as a tool to meet and discuss their homework assignments before you submit them to me for credit.

3/30 (2:20PM) - The Unit Two Lecture Exam (Videos with Worksheets) is now posted. Goto Unit Two Lecture and you will see the links at the top of the page. Remember, this assignment is the unit two score. There is no lab score to average. So make sure you do a good job on this assignment. You can do this assignment at your own pace but please try to complete ASAP. Thanks.

3/30 (5AM) - I will be on Discord today to answer questions (10AM - 2PM - 6PM). /// C18-C19 online quiz tomorrow! See note below on how "to log onto connect through canvas" to access quiz with special code. This is what you will need to do tomorrow in order to take the quiz!

3/29 (8:30AM) - I will be on Discord today to answer questions (10AM - 2PM - 6PM).

The Practice Log In Quiz is now posted. So go to Canvas and click on the Practice Quiz. . You will need to use a special code (PQ1) to open the quiz. The code is case sensitive so use capital letters followed by "1" with no spaces. This is how you will access the Tuesday C18-C19 Quiz (but with a different code.) It is important for everyone to do this today (or tomorrow) and tell me if you have a problem with this exercise. Thank you!

3/28 (9:30PM) - Unit Two Lecture Exam: --> Unit Two Short Answer Videos and Worksheets are Posted (Not all but you can start. Submit them as you complete then and check back for more worksheets. Goto Unit Two Lecture and you will see the assignments at the top of the page. Remember - Unit Two grade is determined by your Chapter Study Guides and these video assignments. The video worksheets are the exam. Some questions will only require a word or two while other questions may require a few sentences. Most videos are short but one is long (60 min). I believe you will find all the videos informative, entertaining, and rewarding. Enjoy.

3/28 ( 10:40AM) - Semester Lecture Test Schedule (with important notes)..

3/28 (9AM) - Important Lab Info for section C1606 posted on 3/27 (9:30PM) /// Be sure to read this!!!

3/28 (9AM) - In a beautifully emotive poem called Bani Adam (human kind), drafted in the 13th century, the Persian-Muslim polymath Sa’adi used what can be employed as an analogy to our current challenge in order to visualise this common constitution of humanity. It reads:

Human beings are members of a whole,
in creation of one essence and soul.
If one member is afflicted with pain,
other members uneasy will remain.
If you have no sympathy for human pain,
the name of human you cannot retain.

These verses from Sa’adi’s Bani Adam decorate the walls of the United Nations building in New York and the poem was quoted by US president Barack Obama in his videotaped New Year (Nowrouz) message to Iran in March 2009 to open up a new chapter in Iranian relations with the US..

3/28 (7AM) - I will be on Discord to answer questions at 10AM, 2PM, 6PM, and 8PM. You also have my phone number. Please read the 327(9:30PM post) about the C1606 section lab assignments.

3/28 (2:40AM) - Yikes! I could not sleep tonight so I got up and looked at the CoVID-19 JH Dashboard. The United States now has surpassed China's confirmed infections by 20K (China 81K to USA 104K). We now have over 1,700 deaths (Remember when Mr. Trump said that he had it under control. When there were only 15 infected and one dead person in January 2020). By the time I wake up again the number of deaths in the United States could be over 2,000. These are not numbers, these are people. Old people and young people stacked up neatly and entombed in body bags; stacked up in the parking lots of our hospital as if cords for fire wood waiting to be reclaimed by their families.

I know your hospital administrators want to provide their staff with proper PPE and safe working environments, but they can't. So for my students who work in health care, be safe. Thank you for being so brave and dedicated. Now you understand that healthcare is not just a job. Use your voices to demand that the President turns over the management of this crisis to the healthcare professionals and scientist. This is not the time for politics.

There will be a time after this is all over for historians to write about his moment. The historians will write about the heroes who are the health care provides and first responders who were there for the sick and saved as many patients as they could. The historians will also write about our leaders who were so incompetent, so arrogant, and so irresponsible. Historians will write about the most powerful leaders in government who put their self interest above public interest and refused to do what is right. The ones with power that could but did not stop this nightmare. Be safe. I can only hope that your dreams are pleasant tonight.

3/27 (9:30PM) - This message is for the C1606 section (noon start). The home page for Canvas has been corrected. Because of the setup error, the due date has been extended until Sunday night. (I have been told that you should be able to do the lab learning modules and lab exam in less than 2 hours. You should assume it will take you longer.

Here is an easy three step process to log onto Connect from Canvas. The lab learning modules and lab exam are on Connect.. //// If you did not purchase an access code for Connect than we are providing a free access code. There is a 800 phone number on the log in page for the Connect Student Tech Support Line.

3/27 (7PM) - The Canvas page for section C1606 (the noon start class) is now functional. Because of the error I believe you will be able to complete the lab exercises/exam on Sunday. See directions (Lab Quiz Info / Includes code for free entrance into Connect) to log onto Connect and find the lab exercise and quizzes.

3/27 (11AM ) - Well, the school did not post the correct info on my Canvas account for C1606 which is the section starting a 12PM.  I apologize for not seeing the error earlier but the support team is correcting the problem right now. On the Web site (3/26 at 3:50AM) I posted this link (Lab Quiz Info / Includes code for free entrance into Connect (From Professor Scott)) outlining instructions on how to log onto a special Connect portal for your lab.  This page also has a special code.  You will use this code to enter Connect so you can access the Lab Assignments and Quizzes.  You can not find the Lab Assignments or Quizzes if you try to access Connect with your old account.  Because of the error formatting my C1606, the department will extend the date to complete this lab assignment until Sunday night.  

3/27 (10AM) - I am on Discord now! Use the post-a-question channel.

Use Discord only to study with other students or to ask me questions that you have about the study guide answers. I am finding on Discord many questions about what you should be doing for your lecture and lab assignments. These types of questions should not be on Discord. You should send these types of questions to my email or call me on my cell phone.

3/27 (9:30AM) - I know you did not sign up for this chaotic transition into an online environment and I will be the first to admit that this is not a good situation, however. One thing has not changed. The amount of time necessary to learn the learning objective for this course. If anything, going into an online environment ad hoc more than likely only requires you to increases your study time. So are you spending two to three hours per day just on your AP lessons? If you are then you will get what you need out of this class. You only get as much as you give. Carpe Diem!

3/27 (7AM) - I will be on Discord today at different times to answer student questions ( 10AM // 2PM // 6PM). I am here to help, however. It is your responsibility to first seek the correct and complete answers using resources like my lecture slides, your textbook, and comparing your answers with other students. Networking with other students is the most effective way to learn. You also hve my cell number and please don't hesitate to use it.

I just discovered that I had the C18 lecture link for "blood typing" misdirected to a video. I now have added the correct pathway to my lecture slides on blood typing. .

3/26 (7:30PM) - If you are having a problem getting into Connect then here is the Student Tech Support Number 800-331-5094. ////// Repeat post for detailed info about virtual lab assignments and quizzes -- Lab Quiz Info / Includes code for free entrance into Connect (From Professor Scott)

3/26 (4PM) - I will be on Discord at 7PM.

3/26 (3:50PM) - Info About Saturday Lab Quiz/ Code for free entrance into Connect (From Professor Scott)

3/26 (7:14AM) - A new Discord channel is now available. It is called Post-a-Question. If no one is on Discord and you have a question then place you question in the Post-a-Question channel. Anybody can answer the questions and I will monitor the channel.

I still hope teams meet in their channels, compare study guide answers, and join me in group discussions. I hope to be on Discord for a group discussion at noon today to answer student questions. I need to leave my house for meds and groceries but should be back by noon. Please focus on C18-HL and C19-HL questions now posted on Web site. You should be reviewing my lecture slides often. Ninety-nine percent of the study guide questions can be found in my lecture poser point slides. You may also Google your questions to find answers. Online learning requires the student to be an "active learner". Make susre you read the message thread to follow the evolution of this course and upcoming events.

3/25 (6PM) - How to use Discord

3/25 (12:30PM) - About the quiz. So it was suggested that I post the quiz on the days and time that we are schedule to have class, Tuesdays and Thursdays. I like this idea So if I schedule the time at noon then this would be a good time compromise for my two classes. So lets plan to take the quiz on Tuesday at noon. The quiz will cover C18 and C19. Assume about 30 questions. One minute per question. It is a timed quiz. You will have a narrow window to log onto the exam, 60 min. Once you start the exam then you would have 30 minutes to complete the quiz. I will provide you with a code which will allow you to open the quiz. You can assume we will have a quiz every Tuesday at noon for the rest of the semester. .

3/25 (8AM) - Updated Team Rosters // Here is some tough love. I know everyone is stressed out, working more hours than ever and many of you are working in hospitals and nursing homes. The working conditions throughout the health care community that you are being asked to go into is hard for me to imagine. So be safe. (I hate when people want to thank you for your service but will not even supply you with the proper PPE). But at this time you also need to put a value on your education, think about your goals, and find time to learn as much as you can. I am only a small part of the puzzle. I can only try to help. You need to do the heavy lifting. I still believe our best hope to salvage something from this semester will depend on everyone using Discord to exchange ideas and knowledge. I saw some positive signs yesterday and hope to see more activity on Discord today. "Crape diem"

3/25 (6:30AM) - At 10:30AM today, I will be on Discord's Discussion-Board channel to answer questions on C18 and other topics. I also need to post today a day and time when 90% of the students can take C18 quiz. It will be approximately 20 questions and should take no more than 15 minutes to complete (less than one minute per question).

3/24 (5:30) - Full tutorial on how to use Discord (30 min)

3/24 (2:50PM) - What is the better day for the online quiz? Friday or Saturday. What is the best time? Morning or Afternoon (specific time). Please email me if you have work conflict that makes day and time a factor for you.

3/24 (2:45PM) - The Unit Three Quiz C18 will be on Friday or Saturday (more details coming). So make sure you know the definition (function) of all the formed elements of blood. This means all the characteristics for each cell type as outlined in my lecture power point slides. You can assume at least five questions related to the formed elements.

Also, please give me some feedback on Discord. I see people going to the site but not necessarily using the site as a place to meet to study. How can I help.

3/24 (1PM) - Amended Team Rosters. I am trying to accommodate students placement but please be patient. Jared has been a tremendous help but his work schedule will now limit what he can do so if you are "proficient" in Discord, then please give me a call.

3/24 (10:30AM) - We will take our first online lecture quiz covering C18 on Friday. It will be an online exam, approximately 20 questions, and you will have 25 minutes to complete the quiz once you log onto the exam. I will send you a code number so you can open the exam. We will take our second lecture quiz next week covering C19 and C20. So you need to focus your attention on learning the material in C18, C19, and C20.

3/24 (10:30AM) - My goal today is to have students start to use Discord to review their C18 study guide answers. We need to make sure you have the most correct answers to C18 quesitons. I will be reaching out to so I can help you in this process.

3/23 (5PM) - I am happy to see students turning in chapter study guides and video homework assignments. Remember, this is not a "race" to complete the homework assignments. Furthermore, one student ask me what he was suppose to do after he completed the study guides? You need to LEARN the factoids. You need to exchange your answers with other students to correct mistakes. This is why I am working to set up a Discord community. So please, everyone follow the directions below to log onto Discord, and download the app to your computer. I hope to have everyone using Discord by Wednesday. Keep up the good work!

3/23 (2:30PM) - Assigned Teams and list of improper user names unable to assign to team.

3/23 (1:15PM) - OK. But some students are not providing me with their proper user name. For example, someone gave me a user name "jayjay" and another student entered "courtney". This does not help me. So come-on, please follow the instructions and don't make my job harder than it needs to be. I am working to help you get through this semester. So PLEASE FOLLOW MY INSTRUCTIONS! Thank you. Read today's 11:20AM and 8AM messages.

3/23 (12PM) - Lab Quiz Info / Code for free entrance into Connect (From Professor Scott)

3/23 (11:20AM) - PLEASE enter your Discord user name using the following syntax ---> last name_first name (no spaces eg. belleau_cliff)

3/23 (8AM) - Welcome to the official restarting of our W2020 semester as an online environment. Many student's (most) never stopped working which is a good thing. We will need to learn new skills sets to learn in an online environment. So there will be bumps in the road but we will work through the kerning curve and we will be OK. A key component for my classes is to learn how to use Discord. I started to work with some students yesterday but I did not have the site properly configured. Therefore, I need to start over today so I apologize for my mistakes. So I need everyone to start the log in process again today. Please follow the instructions posted below (3/22 - 10:30PM).

3/22 (10:30PM - I have just took a "master class" on Discord by Jared Haught. Jared is one of your classmates in the 12PM lecture class. He has formated our Discord server so we can communicate globally as a group and also have smaller study teams. I think once we start to use this program you too will be very excited. I started to set up the program but Jared made some valuable recommendations on how best to organize the platform for our class. So here is what I need you to do.

You will need to click on this hyperlink (read notice before you click on hyperlink):
This invites you to enter the Discord site and become a member of our group. Once you are on the site, provide a user name (your last underscroe first name / e.g. belleau_cliff). Next, download the application (this is important). Now you are part of our group. Now I will be able to see your name and I will be able to assign you to a "team".

As a group member, when you enter the site you will be able to introduce yourself and communicate with anyone who is also on the site (voice or text). There will be 50 students in our BIOL2710 group channel. You can also post to the group that you would like to meet someone at a specific time to talk about a topic. As a team member, you will have a dedicated space where your team members (3 to 4 classmates) may meet to review study guide and worksheet before you submit them for credit.

3/22 (3:30PM) - The Discord response has been fantastic. I already have four groups with 17 students signed up. These students should try today to log onto the site and start to learn how they can group communicate using text, voice, and document exchange.

3/22 (12PM) - PLEASE DO NOT TEXT ME! You can email me or call me on the phone, but please do not text (second request). Read the 10AM request and respond ASAP. Thank you.

3/22 (10AM) - Important Discord Notice - Read & Print

3/21 (6PM) -McGraw-Hill has graciously agreed to give all BIOL 2710 students Connect access with the electronic textbook for free for the remainder of the semester. To get free access to Connect, you must follow the steps listed below. (Print This Page)

3/21 (3:30PM) - All the C22 Homework Assignments are now posted.

Writing out the answers to the chapter study guides and video worksheets is simply organizing the information that you need to learn. To learn this information, you will need to review this information hundreds of times. Literally, you will need to rehearse these factoids hundreds of time in order to form hypocampus dependent long term potentiation. You need to strengthen the synaptic connections along the memory trace. So think about how we form declarative memories.

3/21 (11:30AM) - I am working on C22 Homework Assignments and I will have them done by this afternoon. Fortunately, many students have been working on their homework assignments this week. Other students will be entering our online class on Monday, March 23rd. This is OK, however. You will need to complete all of C18 and C19 homework assignments by the end of the week and submit them to me for credit. As always, make sure you read all previous messages to stay connected to the class. See message 3/20 (9AM) about Unit Three Exam Schedule.

3/20 (1PM) - Please do not text me. I will not respond to text messages. Either email or phone me with your questions. Before you ask me questions, please review previous messages which may answer your questions. Right now, my main concern is to focus on Unit Three lessons and test you on Unit Three as outlined in my 3/20 9AM notice. As we complete Unit Three, I will have more to say about the Unit Two Lecture Exam. So yes, you need to continue to review Unit Two topics, but this is something you should do as well as review Unit One topics because these are topics which we need to know in order to understand new lessons in Unit Three and Unit Four. You have already been told that the Unit Two Lab Exam has been waved. Lastly, if you have concerns not easily addressed in an email, then please give me a call. You have my phone number, use it.

3/20 (11AM) - From the Provost Office: To the faculty: There’s a fine line between good, timely information and too much information delivered too often.  I hope this second message today doesn’t cross that line.  We are all doing things now we’ve never done before, so I do want to keep you informed on a timely basis because what we need to do continues to evolve, recognizing a risk of oversaturation.  So here goes:

  1. You should expect to teach your course online for the duration of the winter semester which ends May 4.  We had originally expected to return to face to face modalities by mid-April, but the current limitations on gatherings, social distance, and avoiding contaminated surfaces will very likely continue for at least several more weeks, perhaps months.  So we will not be returning to face to face instruction, except in some cases where labs can be safely conducted, during the winter semester.
  2. As many of you already know, students are now beginning to contact their instructors.  Please check your emails and phone messages to find out if your students are reaching out to you, and if so, please get back to them as soon as you can. 
  3. A common question students may have is about managing their enrollment in classes, so you can pass along the following information if inquiries come in from students about the request for a refund due to the change in modality of classes and/or COVID-19 concerns.  Students should email the Registrar at with the following information:

    Student name - Macomb ID - Email address - Please list the classes you would like to be considered for a refund - Will you want to take these classes in FA2020 – yes or no /// Requests will be reviewed individually and will not process until early April.
  1. You may also be asked questions that really require a student to interact with counseling and advising.  In that case suggest they email  Additional departmental email addresses will be sent to you from the student services area.
  2. Once your course is in Canvas, please be sure to publish the course so students will see that their course is going to be starting by at least next Monday.
  3. Even though there are few people on campus and plenty of space for cars, please do not park in fire lanes around buildings.  We’ve had one situation already where emergency vehicles had trouble getting past cars parked in a fire lane.

    That’s all for now.  We’ll continue to keep you informed as we move toward next week and beyond.

3/20 (9AM) - I want to thank you for turning in your homework assignments. The level of class participation has been outstanding. However, if you have not yet started to do this work then now is the time to start. It is not too late. I am currently working on making the homework assignments for C22- respiratory system. This should be done today. So after you complete C20 homework assignments, I want you to "jump" to C22. We will come back to C21 after you complete C22. Remember, learning occurs through repetition (rehearsal) so you need to continue to review my lecture slides, your chapter study guide answers, and video worksheets.

My goal is to give you the first online lecture exam at the end of next week (test date March 29th at 10AM). Unit three lecture exam will be broken up into three exams. The first exam will only cover C18 and C19. The second online exam will cover C20 and C22. The third online exam will cover only C21, the lymphatic system and immune system. I believe the immune system is the most import topic that we will cover this semester. This is why I am trying to move fast now so we can have more time to cover the immune system. Thanks again for your effort, stay focused, and be safe.

3/19 (10AM) - Science Department's Directive on Exams: The lecture exam dates should not change. It depends on how you are progressing in terms of the delivery of your lecture material online. The first lab assignment will be assigned on Monday, March 23rd. Students will have at least three days to complete it. I am putting the finishing touches on it now.  The lab exercises will need to be proofread. Then we will share with instructors through CONNECT.

So, this means if you have not already been working on your lab learning objective, then now is the time to start. I will provide you on Monday with detailed instructions on how to access the lab assignments and how to complete the lab assignments for credit. This alternative online lab can not replace our lab experience but it is the best alternative given the condition caused by the pandemic. If you do the lab assignments on time and complete the individual lab learning modules, then you should assume that you will get an "A" for the lab portion of your grade.

The faculty at MC3 has two objectives for our students. First, we want to be fair and do what is in our students, best interest. Secondly, we want to provide our students with a high quality online instruction. This is important. Working together, I think we can do it.

3/18 (7PM) - C20 homework assignments are now posted. So remember, after you complete the chapter assignments then you need to budget time each day to review your work. This means review my lecture slides each day, your study guides, and short answers for the video worksheets. This is what you need to do in order to be prepared for your allied health programs.

3/18 (1PM) - I want to thank everyone for your effort to complete the homework assignments. I think we are starting to set a new normal: 1) read the book and review my lecture slides, 2) do the chapter study guide questions, 3) do the worksheets for the videos. Overall, the work has been very good. Give me your best work! If you are slow to start, then you can still catch up without penalty. Your education is your future; its important. All C19 homework assignments are now posted. I hope to have C20 posted by 9AM Thursday.

My goal is to move fast right now so we can take more time for the Immune System. It is always the most important topic we cover. This is even more true today because of the CoVID19 infection.

You also need to work on your anatomy learning objectives. Use your textbook, my Web site resources, and other Web resources (you can Google anything!). Lab was always designed as a student's self directed learning exercise. I am still available to answer any questions you may have about anatomy.

3/17 (2:30PM) - I have started to post some of the C19 HW Assignments. I will have them completed by tonight. You should try to submit all C19 assignments no later than Sunday. I should know by Friday what we are going to do about the Unit 2 Lecture Exam and Vocab Exam. So continue to review Unit Two topics.

Remember. We are now going to put a greater emphasis on these chapter homework assignments. There will be some sort of an exam but it may only determine 20% of your grade. That means these homework assignments could represent 80% of your grade. So give me your best work and I will thank you in advance!

3/17 (10:30AM) - Note from Science Department: The science department will not be rescheduling the Unit II laboratory practical.  The laboratory portion of your grade will be calculated without the Unit II laboratory practical. The science department will be replacing the Unit III laboratory practical with several online assignments.  They will be images that cover the various structures listed on your laboratory objectives for Unit III, which have been posted.  When these assignments become available by the science department, you will be notified.  As mentioned previously, there will be no laboratory quizzes for Unit III.

3/17 (10AM) - I am starting to receive student study guide answers. So thank you for working with us in this new online experiment. You will determine our success! I am also providing you with additional homework assignments for credit. I have added some additional assignments for C18 and I am currently working on C19. At this point, my standard for acceptance is very low, however. These homework assignments are likely to be a major factor in your grade calculation. So I will expect more complete answers than some of the work turned in today. Here is an example of the quality of work you should try to emulate. You don't need to type out our answers, but they should me more than a one or two word answer. Furthermore, you still need to network with other classmates to compare and edit your answers. I want to see if we can form small private chat room groups within our classes. If you have experience with private chat rooms then your help in this area would be greatly appreciated. Please call me.

3/16 - "I am a firm believer in the people. If given the truth, they can be depended upon to meet any national crisis. The great point is to bring them the real facts." Abraham Lincoln

It is unlikely that the campus will open any time soon. So MC3 plans to give you the option to complete this semester as an online learner during this pandemic. The infrastructure necessary for global online learning across the college is still being developed, however. You are the critical component. You will have to be an "active learner". I believe my classes have an advantage because you have a resource rich Web site already up and running. I will add shortly a Canvas component to work in parallel with this Web site. Canvas is a secure site where you can access your grades on homework assignments. .

What does it mean to be an "active learner"? It means you will have to have the discipline to do what I asked you to do on the first day of class. It is all about preparation. Read the book, study my online lectures, complete the chapter study guides, use chat rooms to communicate with classmates so you can collaborate with other students to complete your chapter study guides, work on learning your vocabulary terms, and ask questions. Yes, you can email me or give me a call if you need help. My generation and your generation have never faced this type of a national crisis. We have no choice but to rise to the occasion. So you need to be safe, be smart, and do the right things. "Carpe diem"

3/13 - I hope everyone is well. This pandemic is going to change how we live our lives for several months. We need to be safe and smart. We don't have to be paralyzed by fear or give up. We need to be positive and continue to move forward. Your education is more import now than it has ever been. If you are interested in medicine (and this is what you have told me), then this is your time. In Unit Three we will study the immune system so what could be better timing! So I want you to double down on your education and start to work on learning your Unit Three Learning Objectives. I also want you to call me so I can answer any questions that you have about our class. I will make myself available for incoming phone calls between 10AM-12PM and 3PM-5PM for today and the next three days. If I don't pick up then leave your name and number and I will return your call. My cell number is 586.549.0583. My email address is

3/12 (7:30PM) - Message Sent to Students Via eMail

3/12 -We will continue our semester starting today as an online course. I will post later today more information about how and what you will need to do. These recommendations will be very similar to the recommendations that I gave you on the first day of class. So briefly, the main difference is we will not meet on campus Tuesdays and Thursdays. Today you need to start C18: Blood. I reviewed the C18 Chapter Study Guide. You should complete the study guide by next Tuesday and you will need to email me the answers by noon for full credit. You can find the answers by using the textbook and C18 posted lectures. You also need to start learnng the Unit Three Lab Learning Objectives. It is now even more critical that you use all the resources embedded in my Web site. In my message this afternoon, I will outline a procedure so you can ask questions either by email or phone. If we are going to be successful, then we will need to increase the amount of communication between the student and the instructor.

3/11 - The campus is closed starting at 5AM Thursday, March 12th. The Unit Two Lecture and Lab Exams will be rescheduled for Tuesday, March 24. /////>> So continue to review Unit Two material using our on line resources. We will continue to conduct class on line. You will be expected to follow the posted lecture schedule (Lecture & Exam Schedules T/Th W2020), read the textbook, study the online lectures, and complete the Chapter Study Guides. You will need to submit your answers via email and I will post the due dates for the individual chapter study guides. Here is a link for Unit Three Vocabulary Terms. You will also need to use the on line resources to study the lab learning objectives. /////>> I will set up a "frequently asked question page" to respond to questions students have about learning topics. These are serious times and it is unfortunate to have your education compromised. We have to work together to achieve the best possible outcome. Be safe.

3/11 - Urgent Notice from President Sawyer, MC3

Dear Colleagues:

With two presumptive positive cases of COVID-19 now identified in southeast Michigan, I wanted to reassure you that we are actively monitoring the evolving situation. We continue to follow the guidance of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services, the Office of the Governor and the Macomb County Health Department.

It is our goal to balance two imperatives: taking precautions to protect our college community and the communities around us, while continuing to deliver courses and key college services in a manner appropriate to circumstances.

As a result, we will be suspending on-campus, in-person classes beginning 5 a.m., Thursday, March 12, through Sunday, March 22. This pause will allow us to work through the process of moving most classes online. Current online classes and offsite clinicals will continue as scheduled and will not be affected by this suspension.

During the suspension of on-campus, face-to-face instruction, the college will be open, and staff are to report. While we will be encouraging students to call departments for resources and support rather than coming to campus, we will be open for business.

We are also cancelling all events involving more than 100 participants through Sunday, April 12.

We will continue to monitor and make adjustments to protect the well-being of the college community. I appreciate your commitment to serving our students and community, and your efforts in helping us navigate through rapidly evolving circumstances.                                                                                                                 


James O. Sawyer IV, Ed.D.
Macomb Community College

3/4 - There is a pandemic and the health of our community should be our primary concern. There is no reason to panic but prudent action is required. Yes, we must do the simple things like washing our hands as often as possible, don't touch our faces, avoid personal contact with anyone exhibiting symptoms, and staying at home if you have a cold or if you think that you are coming down with any illness. Remember, if you feel like you are coming down with something than it is more likely to be a common cold or the seasonal flu and not the CoVID-19 infection, however. We must error on the side of caution. So stay at home. If you start to experience respiratory symptoms than you should contact immediately your primary doctor or the county health department for help. The staff at Macomb will make special accommodations for students who miss classes and/or exams for health related causes. As you already know, all of my lectures and course resources are posted on-line. So if you miss lectures then you can still follow the course from home. Missed exams can be rescheduled. As always, we should hope for the best but prepare for the worst. So stay healthy and practice good community health.

2/19 - Unit Two Test Questions: C12 = 16 / C13 = 13 / C14 = 17 / C15 = 10 / C16 = 11 / C17 = 13. I will reserve the first 15 minutes of our lecture session to review and answer any questions you may have about hot list questions.

2/12 - We are now working on Unit Two topics. I will continue to follow the lecture schedule that you received in your first day handout. If you decide not to attend class and you miss assignments then it is your responsibility to find out what you missed from other students. Furthermore, if you do not attend class then you forfeit your opportunity to review lecture slides in class, to learn about other lecture topics not in my posted lectures, and to ask questions. You also miss the benefit from other student's questions. I will continue to come to class early to answer student's questions and I will be prepared for my lectures. It is the student's responsibility to do the work necessary to be prepared for the lecture. I can not help you if you do not come to class. It is your choice. I hope you understand that it is in your best interest to be in class.

2/1 - In The News: The world is facing a global emergency caused by the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). The typical coronavirus causes the common cold but the 2019-nCoV is a mutated coronavirus. It causes a severe respiratory infections with a high morality rate. A virus is a short strand of nucleotides wrapped in a protein coat. A virus is not alive or dead but it exist as an active or inactive particle. So the virus is simply a piece of chemistry able to high-jack a living cell and use the cells resources to duplicate the viral particle by factors of hundreds of thousands with each cycle (measured in hours and days). As of today the 2019-nCoV has caused 250 deaths (2/1/2020). The common flu virus this season has already caused 10,000 deaths, however. The 2019-nCoV has the potential to become a pandemic with the threat to cause global disruption. Your best defense against a virus infection is to wash your hands whenever you get a chance, don't touch your face with your hands, limit exposure to crowds, and follow other behavior that support good health like a good diet, getting enough sleep, and reduced stress. .

1/27 - Human physiology students need to follow the developing story about the 2019-nCoV. This is a potential pandemic and it is likely that thousands of people will die in Michigan in the next few weeks. The infection started in China and we already have reported cases in the United States. This is an opportunity to learn how novel diseases develop and what are the factors that determine how the disease is transmitted. If you are curious then follow the story at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Web site.


> Last day for refund: 1/13/2020
> Last day to withdraw: 4/02/2020




About the "Message Board" ---Throughout the course, I will use this space to post important messages. You will need to check the "Message Board" often (i.e. daily) for updates and corrections.

  How Many Hours Will You Need to Study Daily to Pass This Class?  
  It is all about Time on Task. In order to learn all the lecture and lab learning objectives, you will need to study two to three hours per day, seven days a week for the next 16 weeks! This recommendation is from research data collected by the Michigan Educational Association. Remember, this is "study time" and does not include the lab and lecture time. This study time is an "investment in your future". The Roman poet Horace said famously, "Carpe diem" . (i.e. seize the day or "one should do all one can today to make one's future better). Carpe diem!  

Neuroscience research also tells us that it is more beneficial if you study daily instead of skipping several days and then on the weekend trying to study ten hours at one time to make up for missed study time. The daily study idea is based on synaptic potentiation, memory recall, and memory re-consolidation theories. We know recalling stored information reinforces "the memory trace". This is a nerve pathway which is established in our brains as we place the information (i.e. the factoid) into our memory. Recall and re-consolidation (i.e. retrieving and replacing the memory) reinforces the synaptic connections along the memory trace. This is how the brain works! So if we hope to benefit from our scientific knowledge, then we may need to change our behavior to take advantage of this knowledge.

  Is it wise to ignore scientific facts because the facts are inconvenient?  

The purpose of science is to find what is true! Researchers who study classroom learning have discovered how personal digital devices (e.g. cell phones and lap-top computers) affect learning in the lecture class. The experimental results are alarming. When digital devices were allowed in the class room, class test results were one full grade lower! So in the interest of both "science and best practices in the lecture room", I prohibit cell phones and personal computers in my lecture classes. No exceptions!

This scientific evidence is not an isolated finding. There is a growing body of evidence all suggesting the negative impact of digital devices on classroom learning. The negative impact on learning occurs for both the user and those students near the digital user. Even the mere presence of the digital devices, turned off and in the student's backpack, will have negative consequences on the individual. I have provided you with several articles below to support my classroom policy. I realize that for some students this policy may feel unfair or inconvenient. My policy is based on scientific research and is in my student's best interest. Please read the reference articles below to learn how digital devices in the classroom harms classroom learning and lowers test scores.

How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds - If you are smart then you will read this article. If you are wise then you will leave your phones at home or in your car when you come into school. "Students who didn't bring their phones to the classroom scored a full letter-grade higher on a test of the material presented than those who brought their phones to class."

Laptop Multi-tasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Users and Nearby Peers -- "Seeking Best Practices in Teaching" means a willingness to apply knowledge to ensure the best possible outcome for your students. This article is my justification for prohibiting laptop computers in my lectures. You can use laptop computers in lab. The "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds" is the justification for my cell phone policy. Sometimes science is inconvenient and in conflict with your personal wishes; but science seeks the truth. I hope you will read the smart-phone and laptop computer articles.

French school children head back to school without their cell phones, smart phones, and tablets. (link to article)

  Reference Links:  
> WileyPLUS Registration Instructions  
> MC3 Library Hours -W2020  
  In The News:  
>> Inequity in the United States now eclipse the "Gilded Age" of the 1890s with the unfettered capitalism of Rockefeller, Carnegie, and Morgan. No society and no democracy has lasted with such extreme inequities. Furthermore, there is an intersection where health and inequity meet. We have the scientific data to illustrate why and how inequities in a society negatively impacts health and increases disease. The article, A Rigged Economy, explains how extreme inequities in the United States occurred over time and suggest how we can restore a more balanced economy. The article, The Health-Wealth Gap, explains how poverty by itself does not cause disease but when povery is linked to low social economic status so those with little are surrounded by those with wealth (i.e. inequities) then the low SES will causes disease and reduces life expectancy.  
>> TED Talk by Rutger Bergman - The author of Utopia for Realist /// Mr. Bergman explains in his talk how poverty can be overcome with gaurenteed income and how this will improve both health and social order.  
>> Hypothesis Targets Porphyromonas gingivalis (bacteria in mouth) as Causative Agent for Alzheimer Disease // Artcle 2  
> Malady Mongers: How Drug Companies Sell Treatments by Inventing Diseases  
> Update 2018: Why Is Healthcare So Expensive in United States?  
> America's Health Care Comes in Last Again - Most Expensive and Delivers Worst Outcomes  


Health Care Resources & Other Special Topic
Anatomy and Physiology Students

  BioInteractive Home Page  
  Follow this link (What is BioInteractive?) to learn about an amazing "science resource portal". It is the work of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. It has a teaching mission but also provides research grants to scientist working in human physiology and medicine. Their novel approach to funding scientist has produced significant results with a steady stream of Noble Prize Winners. This link ( will take you to a catalog of videos produced by HHMI. The link at the top of this section (highlighted in grey) will take you directly to BioInteractive's Home Page. This is a must visit Web site!  
  Royal Instition of Great Britian  
  The Royal Institution of Great Britain is an organisation devoted to scientific education and research, based in London. It was founded in 1799 by the leading British scientists of the age, including Henry Cavendish and its first president, George Finch, the 9th Earl of Winchilsea. The lecture hall at the Royal Institute is considered the most famous lecture hall in the world! (Lecture Series on "Being Human")  
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  
The CDC should be your first source for information about disease and wellness. This site is designed to provide valuable healthcare information to physicians as well as to the general public. The CDC also reports on emerging diseases around the world and in the United States. BioInteractive
  National Institutes of Health  
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation’s medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives. The NIH is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. For over a century, NIH scientists have paved the way for important discoveries that improve health and save lives..
  American Council on Science & Health  
The American Council on Science and Health was founded in 1978 by a group of scientists with a singular mission – to provide an evidence-based counterpoint to the wave of anti-science claims that became the calling card of fundraising groups who were using mass media to promote fear about topics such as food, energy and medicine. These scientists created an organization that could add data and reason to debates about science and public health issues and to provide that data to policy makers and the public. ACSH is a national, non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) education and advocacy organization based in New York City.
  Food and Drug Administration  

FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA's organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations.

  Kaiser Family Foundation  
Kaiser is a non-profit organization focusing on national health issues, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own policy analysis, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with major news organizations. We serve as a non-partisan source of facts, analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media,  the health
policy community and the public. Our product is information, always provided free of charge — from the most sophisticated policy research, to basic facts and numbers, to in depth health policy news coverage provided by our news service, KHN, to information young people can use to improve their health or the general public can use to understand the health reform law. Our core mission is filling the need for trusted information about Health Issues
PharMedOut is a Georgetown University Medical Center project that advances evidence-based prescribing and educates healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical marketing practices. PharMedOut promotes evidence-based medicine by providing slideshows, videos, events, and links to pharma-free CME courses. (Founded by Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman)
"In Sick Around the World, Frontline teams up with veteran Washington Post foreign correspondent T.R. Reid to find out how five other capitalist democracies --(United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan and Switzerland) -- deliver health care, and what the United States might learn from their successes and their failures." April 15, 2008   Follow this link:
Their mission is to educate citizens about the benefits of a Single-Payer National Health Program. The U.S. spends twice as much as other industrialized nations on health care, $8,160 per capita. Yet our system performs poorly in comparison and still leaves 50.7 million without health coverage and millions more inadequately covered. This is because private insurance profits, unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork over electronic documents consume one-third (31 percent) of every health care dollar.

Greg Silver, MD
(Note: the new Health Care Reform Act now mandates that a health insurance company spends a higher percent of your health care premium for health care services and if they don't spend the premium for medical services then they must rebate that money to the insured. However, it is still less fair than what other industrial countries do with their national healther care programs.) Streamlining payment through a single nonprofit payer would save more than $400 billion per year, enough to provide comprehensive, high-quality coverage for all Americans. Follow this Link to Visit PNHP's Web Site
Lectures by Dr. Robert Sapolsky, The John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn
Professor of Biological Sciences and Neurology at Stanford University

Dr. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biology, Neurosurgery, Neurology & Neurological Sciences at Stanford University.  You can now attend Professor Sapolsky eclectic lectures online.   These inspirational lectures cover complex normal and abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, they show us how we can integrate disciplines like sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness. After you watch these lectures, you will understand why Professor Sapolsky was voted by his students to be the best teacher at Stanford University.

The Limbic System

Link to 41 Lectures by Dr. Sapolsky
Stanford University

Robert Sapolsky won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works, and in particular how prolonged stress can cause both physical and mental health problems. Author of seven bestselling books including A Primate’s Memoir and Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, he has made annual trips to Africa for the past twenty three years to study a population of wild baboons and the relationships between their personalities and patterns of stress-related diseases. One of the nation’s top biologists, he is also a wry humanist, and reminds us: “If a rat is a good model for your emotional life, you’re in trouble.”

  How Bacteria Talk
by Dr. Bonnie Bassler, Princeton University

Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine.

In 2002, bearing her microscope on a microbe that lives in the gut of fish, Bonnie Bassler isolated an elusive molecule called AI-2, and uncovered the mechanism behind mysterious behavior called quorum sensing -- or bacterial communication. She showed that bacterial chatter is hardly exceptional or anomalous behavior, as was once thought -- and in fact, most bacteria do it, and most do it all the time. (She calls the signaling molecules "bacterial Esperanto.")



The discovery shows how cell populations use chemical powwows to stage attacks, evade immune systems and forge slimy defenses called biofilms. For that, she's won a MacArthur "genius" grant -- and is giving new hope to frustrated pharmacos seeking new weapons against drug-resistant superbugs.

Bassler teaches molecular biology at Princeton, where she continues her years-long study of V. harveyi, one such social microbe that is mainly responsible for glow-in-the-dark sushi. She also teaches aerobics at the YMCA.

“She's really the one who's shown that this is something that all these bacteria are doing all the time. And if we want to understand them, we have to understand quorum sensing.” — Ned Wingreen, Princeton, on Nova ScienceNOW -- Go To TED Talk


Thirty cents of every dollar spent on U.S. health care -- a total of $750 billion -- was wasted in 2009 on unnecessary services, excessive administrative costs, fraud and other problems, according to the Institute of Medicine. It's enough to cover every uninsured American six times over. What else could it buy? ss
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine" Influenza" was our most recent "near-miss" pandemic. When will it be back? Why are scientists terrified about the H5N1 virus? Why do some scientist believe the H5N1 virus may kill worldwide more than a billion people? Why are newborns and senior citizens more likely to survive a flu pandemic? ss
Harvard Health Publishing by Harvard Medical School
This web site is a trusted reaource for advise about living a healthier life. You may use this site to start your search for trusted information on a broad range of topics: heart health, mind and mood, pain, nutrition, staying healthy, cancer, diseases, men's health, wormen's health, and much more.

OpenBiome mission is to be the trusted brand in bringing improved health through microbiome solutions. If you are a student looking for an exciting career in science, then you may want to think about working for a biotech company.

 "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm".   Henry David Thoreau