Physiology Unit Two (C12 - C17)
Unit Two Lecture Objectives // Dictionary of Pronunciation // Medical Dictionary

Chapter 12
Nervous Tissue
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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Second Messenger Transmembrane Signaling
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* Neural Network: (Image No Text) / (Image With Text)
* Audio Review / Nervous System Cells
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
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How Has Stephen Hawking Lived to 70 with ALS? (Dr. Hawking died March 14, 2018 after a life dedicated to science and helping us to understand "everything".)
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* More Articles of Interest // Indexed by Subject
   
Special Videos Covering Neuroscience // Highly Recommended But Not Required
   
The Howard Hughes Medical Institute sponsored a lecture series called Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory. Two world renowned neuroscientist, Dr. Thomas Jessell, PhD. and Dr. Eric Kandel MD, presented four lectures. Dr. Kandel won the Nobel Prize in Medicine (Physiology) in 2000 for his work on synaptic consolidation (synaptic memory). In the first video, Dr. Kandel provides a historical review of neuroscience.. Other links to HHMI resources are provided throughout Unit 2. These videos are recommended for all students.
   
** Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory (58 min)
Dr. Eric Kandel M.D. (Nobel Prize in Medicine 2000)
* Molecular Logic of Neural Curcuits (How a nerve cell gets its identity, sends axons, and makes connections with other cells.) // Dr. Jessel
** Memories Are Made of This // Dr. Eric Kandel
* Measuring neuronal activity, generating action potentials, and recording the firing of individual neurons // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Genes associated with autism affect the structure and function of neuronal synapses. // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Learning Between a Sensory and Motor Neuron
   
Royal Institute Christmas Lecture Series (The World's Most Famous Lecture Hall)
** What is in your head? (watch all three parts)
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required
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* Pathophysiology: The Nervous System (179 lecture slides)
   

Chapter 13
The Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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* Audio Review / Central Nervous System
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
* Spinal Cord Injury // Complete TranSection, Spinal Shock, and Herniated Disc
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Golgi Tendon Organ (not to be confused with the Golgi Apparatus)
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* Demo: Proprioception Makes Raising a Mug Easy // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
** Ian Waterman: In the absence of proprioception and visual feedback, it is impossible to touch thumb to fingers accurately.
** Demo: Raising Mug Without Proprioception - Ian Waterman// Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Ian Waterman: Able to use visual sytems to compensate for loss of proprioception.
* How the Spinal Cord Controls Movement // Dr. Jessel
   

Chapter 14
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
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Brain Meninges, Ventricles, and Spinal Fluid
* An Introduction to the Evolution of the Brain and the Structure of the Brain
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Brain Function
* Cranial Nerves and Cerebral Lateralization
* Motor Control: An Example of Higher Brain Function
   
Chapter Study Guides
* C14 Learning Objectives
* C14 Learning Objectives - HL
 
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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** Chronic Traumatic Encephalophy (CTE) - This is the cause for dementia and death in football players!
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Limbic System: Understanding the Emotional Brain (1:28 video)
* The Amygdala in Five Minutes
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The Limbic system (10 min video)
* Synethesia: When Sound, Numbers, and Letters Are Perceived as Color
** The Savant Brain
* Ten Special Savants
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How the Brain Constructs Reality
* Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Circadian Rhythms
   
Fiber tracks in the brain are axons that connect integrating centers. This is how these fiber tracks are classified: 1) The commissural tracks connect integrating centers horizontally between the two cerebral hemispheres 2) Association tracks connect integrating centers in same hemisphere which maybe either long and short. Therefroe, they connect grey matter between gyrus within same lobe (short) or between different lobes (long) 3) Projection fibers connect integrating centers along a vertical axis(e.g. the cerebrum to the brain stem). We can see these tracks using MRI Diffuse Tensor Imaging. ///
   
** Image 1 / Image 2 / Image 3 / Image 4
** The Neural Network of the Neocortex: Image No Text / Image With Text
   
* Audio Review / Central Nervous System
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
** Basal Ganglia - Structure and Function in Motor Control
** CNS Neurotransmitters (Review Slide Show)
** Transverse Sections of the Brain (Images: MRI False Color)
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The Brain: 1) Evolutionary Layers of the Human Brain // 2) The Two Pathways of Fear // 3) The Pleasure Center // 4) The Reward Circuit
** The Triune Brain Theory // Three Stages of Brain Evolution
  Language, Larynx, and the Hyoid Bond
* Evolution, Language Concepts, & the Hyoid Bone
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Limbic System and Concept of Historical Evolution
** The Predictive Brain - How AI Tries to Copy Our Brain's Principle Functional Model
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* CREB: Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Protein & Its Role in Long Term Potentiation
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Language Processing in the Brain
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* Vertigo
* Growth of Neural Connections in the Teenage Brain
* The Teenage Brain: Unequal Rate of Development of Limbic Lobe and Frontal Cortex
* What Does Running Do To the Brain?
* What is consciousness?
* Memory Hackers: Scientists are learning how we can edit memories—and delete our worst fears.
   
** Toxoplasmosis gondii - This is a protozoa parasite that reprograms neural circuits in rodents. The parasite-cat-rodent dynamic is a fascinating biology story, however. If you own a cat then you too may have been infected by this parasite. So, how is human physiology affected by this parasite? -- Dr. Robert Sapolsky reviews the science of toxoplasmosis and explains his research on this subject.
   
The map of brain function was originally developed when there was a loss of brain tissue which resulted from war, industrial accidents, or disease. Upon examination of the brain after death, investigators correlated the damaged tissue to loss of function. Phineas Gage, Henry Molaison, and Clive Wearing suffered brain damage that contributed to our understanding about brain function. Today, we can exam brain function in living test subjects using technology like fMRI, PET, and CT. Learn more about this topic by follwoing the links below.
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Phineas Gage: Personality Changes Resulting From Partial Frontal Lobe Necrosis
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Henry Molaison: Absence of New Declarative Memory But Retention of Procedural Memory
* Clive Wearing: The Man with the 20 Second Memory But Retains His Procedural Memory
* Clive Wearing: (video - 1 min 6 sec) Even though Clive Wearing cannot remember people or events, his piano-playing skills are intact.
 
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
 
Dr. David Eagleman is a neuroscientist. He explores the structure and function of the brain in order to understand the difference between conscious and unconscious thoughts. He also explores the brain to understand how we understand reality and questions if free will exists! All of these videos are extremely entertaining and educational.
* Brain Over Mind? // Dr. David Eagleman
* Synesthesia / Dr. Ealgleman
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The Brain / How Do I Decide / Dr. Eagleman
* The Brain / Why Do I Need You / Dr. Eagleman
* The Brain / Who Will We Be / Dr. Eagleman
** TED Talk: Can We Create New Senses for Humans?
** Cup Stacking Champion with Dr. Eagleman
   
Memory and Learning are examples of a "higher brain function" (i.e. in the same way that motor control is a type of higher brain function). How the brain learns, remembers, and retrieves memories are all "unsettled science", however. Scientists are working everyday to unlock the mysteries. We know learning and memory occurs fundamentally in the brain at the synaptic level. There are at least two types of memories: declarative (which is explicit-conscious-hippocampus dependent) and procedural (implicit-unconscious-hippocampus independent - but amygdala - caudate - cerebellum dependent). The following review articles (in conjunction with the HHMI resources) will give you a good introduction to the fundamental principles of memory and learning.
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Memory Consolidation
* Molecular Memory
** Types of Memories
* Explicit VS Implicit Memories
* Explicit Memory
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Implicit Memory
   
Dr. Robert Sapolsky Explains the Link Between Biology and Behavior // Dr. Sapolsky is a neuroscientist and primatologist at Standford Univeristy. Dr. Sapolsky is celebrated as a "SCIENCE ROCK STAR"! I hope you make time to watch some of his lectures and to learn from a true genius. He won the MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works
* Introduction to Human Behavior (1 hour)
* Behavioral Evolution (1:37)
* Behavioral Evolution II (1:37)
** Our Best and Worst Self - TED Talk (15 min)
* Are Humans Just Another Primate? (1:16)
 
A Brain Made for Music // Musical History is Being Made in Our Time - What can this teach us about the brain?
** Alma Deutscher's BBC Interview
* The Henley Festival Interview
* Alma Deutscher: The Mystery of a Perfect Brain Expressed in Music
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Alma Deutscher Plays Slow Movement From Her New New Piano Concerto
* Alma Deutscher Third Movement Violin Concerto - Romania
   

Chapter 15
The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
* Autonomic Nervous System // Adrenergic and Cholinergic Receptors // Neurotransmitters
   
Chapter Study Guides
* C15 Learning Objectives
* C15 Learning Objectives - HL
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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* Audio Review / Peripheral Nervous System
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
* Under Pressure: The Search for a Stress Vaccine (Dr. R. Sapolsky / Stanford U)
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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Chapter 16
Introduction to Sense Organs and the Special Senses
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
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Introduction to Sense Organs
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Vission
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Hearing and Equlibrium
* Pain: Spinal Gating - Not Covered on Exam
   
Chapter Study Guides
* C16 Learning Objectives
* C16 Learning Objectives - HL
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
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Super Toxic Snake Venom Yields New Pain Killer
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Baby Talk
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Aphasia
   
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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Hearing - Video
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Taste - Video
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Vision - Video
** Synesthesia
* Synesthesia: Living Color
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Rotating Mask Illusion (What and where is reality?)
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Rotating Mask Illusion (2)
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* Chess Board
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** Clip From "Prof. Robert Sapolsky on the Neurobiology of Primate Sexuality" (6 min)
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
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Tunnel Vission
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Eye Color
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A Checker Board and Your Perception of Reality // Print "Checker Board"
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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* Conduction Aphagia: This patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind. The fascicles between Broca and Wernekie areas are broken.
   

Chapter 17
Endocrine System
 
 
Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
 
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* The Pituitary Gland and Other Endocrine Tissues
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Stress (not on exam)
   
  Chapter Study Guides
  * C18 Endocrine Structure and Function Plus Required Hormones (answers provided)
  * C18 Learning Objectives - HL
   
 
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
 
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* Audio Review / Endocrine System
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
* Under Pressure: The Search for a Stress Vaccine (R. Sapolsky)
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Select NSAID (Are these drugs safe?)
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* Diabetes: History of the Discovery of Insulin
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Mood Drugs - CRH Functions in Brain
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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* Pathophysiology of Stress
   
Lecture: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4 ////////////Lab: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4