Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution.
(Theodosius Dobzhansky)
Lecture: Unit 1 /// Unit 2 /// Unit 3 /// Unit 4 <<>> Lab: Unit 1 /// Unit 2 /// Unit 3 /// Unit 4

Physiology Unit Two
(C12 - C17)
Unit Two Learning Objectives

 
 

Chapter 12
Nervous Tissue

Lecture Slides / Preview Slides Before Class
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Nervous Tissue...
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Action Potentials vs Graded Potentials vs End-plate Potentials vs Receptor Potentials
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Synapses & Neurotransmitters
* Neural Coding, Memory, Language, and more..
   
Chapter Study Guide (Bring Questions to Lecture)
* C12 Nervous Tissue
   
Required Assignments ( >)
Homework Video Questions - Print PDF
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> Second Messenger Transmembrane Signaling
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> Dr. Eric Kandel - A Conversation About Neuroplastisity
   
Chapter Audio Review / Highly Recommended
* Nervous Tissue
   
The following content is NOT REQUIRED, however. It does correlate to C12's learning objectives. This information is included only for the curious!
* Voltage Gated Channels and Action Potentials
* Neural Network: (Image No Text) / (Image With Text)
   
  The Howard Hughes Medical Institute sponsored a lecture series called Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory. Two world renowned neuroscientist, Dr. Thomas Jessell, PhD. and Dr. Eric Kandel MD, presented four lectures. Dr. Kandel won the Nobel Prize in Medicine (Physiology) in 2000 for his work on synaptic consolidation (synaptic memory). In the first video, Dr. Kandel provides a historical review of neuroscience.. Other links to HHMI resources are provided throughout Unit 2. These videos are recommended for all students.
** Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory (58 min)
Dr. Eric Kandel M.D. (Nobel Prize in Medicine 2000) .
* Molecular Logic of Neural Curcuits (How a nerve cell gets its identity, sends axons, and makes connections with other cells.) // Dr. Jessel
** Memories Are Made of This // Dr. Eric Kandel
* Measuring neuronal activity, generating action potentials, and recording the firing of individual neurons // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Genes associated with autism affect the structure and function of neuronal synapses. // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Learning Between a Sensory and Motor Neuron
   
** What is in your head? (three parts) /// Royal Institute Christmas Lecture Series (This Is the World's Most Famous Lecture Hall!)
   
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* Pathophysiology: The Nervous System (179 lecture slides)
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How Has Stephen Hawking Lived to 70 with ALS? (Dr. Hawking died March 14, 2018 after a life dedicated to science and helping us to understand "everything".)
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* More Articles of Interest // Indexed by Subject
   

Chapter 13
The Spinal Cord Spinal Nerves, and Somatic Reflexes
 

 
Lecture Slides / Preview Slides Before Class
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Spinal Cord
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Spinal Nerves & Ganglia
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Nature of Somatic Reflexes
   
Chapter Study Guide (Bring Questions to Lecture)
* C13 Learning Objectives
   
Required Assignments ( >)
Homework Video Questions - Print PDF
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> TED Talk: Can We Create New Senses for Humans? (20 min)
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Our Best and Worst Self - TED Talk (15 min)
   
Chapter Audio Review / Highly Recommended
* Central Nervous System
   
The following content is NOT REQUIRED, however. It does correlate to C13's learning objectives. This information is included only for the curious!
* Ian Waterman: In the absence of proprioception and visual feedback, it is impossible to touch thumb to fingers accurately.
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Demo: Moving Without Proprioception - Charles Freed// Howard Hughes Medical Institute (2 min)
* Ian Waterman: Able to use visual sytems to compensate for loss of proprioception. (2 min)
   
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Golgi Tendon Organ (not to be confused with the Golgi Apparatus)
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* Demo: Proprioception Makes Raising a Mug Easy // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Ian Waterman: In the absence of proprioception and visual feedback, it is impossible to touch thumb to fingers accurately.
* Demo: Moving Without Proprioception - Charles Freed// Howard Hughes Medical Institute
   
* How the Spinal Cord Controls Movement // Dr. Jessel (58 min)
   

Chapter 14
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
 

 
Lecture Slides / Preview Slides Before Class
* Brain Evolution
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Brain Meninges, Brain Ventricles, and Cerebral Spinal Fluid.
* Brain Structure
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Brain Function
* Cranial Nerves and Cerebral Lateralization
* Comprehensive Motor Control: An Example of Higher Brain Function (Not Required)
   
Chapter Study Guide
* C14 Learning Objectives
   
Required Assignments ( >)
Homework Video Questions - Print PDF
> Two Minute Neuroscience: The Meningese - 2 min
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> Two Miinute Neuroscience: Ventricles - 2 min
> Two Minute Neuroscience: The Brainstem - 2 min
> Triune Brain Theory (6 min)
>
Hack Your Lizard Brain by Robert Sapolsky (6 min)
> Addiction: A Disease of Our Survival System - Dr. Horm (12 min)
>
Opiod Addiction - Mechanism of Action - Part One (12 min)
> Opiod Addiction - Addiction and Overdose - Part 2 (16 min)
   
Chapter Audio Review
* Central Nervous System
 
The following content is NOT REQUIRED, however. It does correlate to C13's learning objectives. This information is included only for the curious!
* Cerebral Spinal Fluid Path - 30 sec
* Brocca's or non-fluent aphasia (video)
* Wernicke's or fluent aphasia (video)
* Conduction Aphagia: This patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind. The fascicles between Broca and Wernekie areas are broken. (video)
* Nika uses Esper hand! 2023
* How to Build a Bionic Arm
* Text VS Color - The Curious Brain .
* Scream Audio - Extreme emotion enhances event memories.
* The Predictive Brain - How "top down" signals help us see the world.
   
* Ventricles: Two Minute Neuroscience
* Upper and Lower Motor Neuron Injury - 6 min
* Two Minute Neuroscience: Amygdala (2 min)
* The Triune Brain Theory // Three Stages of Brain Evolution (1 min)
* The Limbic system (10 min video)
 
* The Neuroscience of Memory - Eleanor Maguire
* The Neuroscience of Consciousness by Anil Seth (60 min) at the Royal Institute
* Language Processing in the Brain (article)
* Hector, the most advanced mechanical arm controlled by human thoughts. (article with 9 min video) 2012
* The Robot Arm Prosthetic Controlled by Thought 2015
   
* The Corticospinal Tract - A review of Motor Neuron Pathway - 6 min
* Motor Pathways - How the Basal Nuclei Excites and Inhibits Skeletal Muscle
* Direct Pathway of the Basal Ganglia (2 min)
* Indirect Pathway of the Basal Ganglia (2 min)
   
Over 100,000 people die per year by opiod overdose in the US.
* US History With Opiods
* Two Minute Science: Alcohol
* Two Minute Science: Opioids
* Two Minute Science: Seritonin
* Seritonin and Treatment for Depression (3 min)
* Two Minute Science: Amygdala
* Addiction and the Brain - (10 min)
* How Opiods Cause Addiction Dr. Waller MD MS
* Addiction 101 Dr. Waller MD MS
* Opiods For Pain Dr. Waller MD MS
* Addiction: A Disease of Our Survival System - Dr. Horm (12 min)
* Drug Addiction and the Brain - Video (very good / physiology illustrations excellent)
* Opiod Addiction - Mechanism of Action (Part 1)- Very Good - use segments in lectuee
* Opiod Addiction - Addiction and Overdose (Part 2)
* Biology of Addiction (research studies w delta FosB / too technical for general viewing)
* How Drugs Enslave Our Brains (sites many scientific studies - technical) 6o min
* Dopamine Four Pathways (clinical relationships)
* Opiod Pharmacology Made Easy
* Opiod Mechanism of Action (8 min) - note: more detailed
* Seratonin VS Dopamine or What is the difference between pleasure and happiness? Dr. Lustig (10 min)
* The Hacking of the American Mind with Dr. Robert Lustig MD
* The Neuroscience of Addiction - with Marc Lewis (60 min)
* Cocaine: The Two Minute Neuroscience
* Cocaine in the Brain
* Dopamine Receptors DAD1 - DAD4
* Basal Nuclei and Dopamine Pathways
* Caffeine: Most Common Psychoactive Drug
 
   
* Two Minute Amygdala (2 min)
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Amygdala (2 min)
   
* Prenatal Development of the Brain (1 1/2 min video/ HHMI)
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*
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* Chronic Traumatic Encephalophy (CTE) - This is the cause for dementia and death in football players!
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* Caffeine and Adenosine - (10 min)
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Limbic System: Understanding the Emotional Brain (1:28 video)
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How the Brain Constructs Reality
   
* Suprachiasmatic Nucleus and Circadian Rhythms
   
  Basal Gaglia - subcortical stuctures that coordiates and smooth out muscle contractions (diseases of the BG)
* Learn About Toureettee Syndrome and Listen to a Young Boy Talk About His Life with Tourette Syndrome
* Two Minute Neuroscience: Tourette Syndrine (2 min)
* Foreign Accent Syndrome
* Cerebral palsy
*
Parkinson's disease
   
  Fiber tracks in the brain are axons that connect integrating centers. This is how these fiber tracks are classified: 1) The commissural tracks connect integrating centers horizontally between the two cerebral hemispheres 2) Association tracks connect integrating centers in same hemisphere which maybe either long and short. Therefroe, they connect grey matter between gyrus within same lobe (short) or between different lobes (long) 3) Projection fibers connect integrating centers along a vertical axis(e.g. the cerebrum to the brain stem). We can see these tracks using MRI Diffuse Tensor Imaging. ///
* Image 1 / Image 2 / Image 3 / Image 4
* The Neural Network of the Neocortex: Image No Text / Image With Text
   
** The Royal Institution of Great Britain -- Lecture Series on "Being Human"
* What happens when you have a concussion? (10 min)
   
* CNS Neurotransmitters (Review Slide Show)
** Transverse Sections of the Brain (Images: MRI False Color)
*
The Brain: 1) Evolutionary Layers of the Human Brain // 2) The Two Pathways of Fear // 3) The Pleasure Center // 4) The Reward Circuit
* Language, Larynx, and the Hyoid Bond
* Evolution, Language Concepts, & the Hyoid Bone
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Limbic System and Concept of Historical Evolution
** The Predictive Brain - How AI Tries to Copy Our Brain's Principle Functional Model
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* CREB: Cyclic AMP Response Element Binding Protein & Its Role in Long Term Potentiation
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* Vertigo
* Growth of Neural Connections in the Teenage Brain
* The Teenage Brain: Unequal Rate of Development of Limbic Lobe and Frontal Cortex
* What Does Running Do To the Brain?
* What is consciousness?
* Memory Hackers: Scientists are learning how we can edit memories—and delete our worst fears.
   
* Toxoplasmosis gondii - This is a protozoa parasite that reprograms neural circuits in rodents. The parasite-cat-rodent dynamic is a fascinating biology story, however. If you own a cat then you too may have been infected by this parasite. So, how is human physiology affected by this parasite? -- Dr. Robert Sapolsky reviews the science of toxoplasmosis and explains his research on this subject.
   
  The map of brain function was originally developed when there was a loss of brain tissue which resulted from war, industrial accidents, or disease. Upon examination of the brain after death, investigators correlated the damaged tissue to loss of function. Phineas Gage, Henry Molaison, and Clive Wearing suffered brain damage that contributed to our understanding about brain function. Today, we can exam brain function in living test subjects using technology like fMRI, PET, and CT. Learn more about this topic by follwoing the links below.
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Phineas Gage: Personality Changes Resulting From Partial Frontal Lobe Necrosis
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Henry Molaison: Absence of New Declarative Memory But Retention of Procedural Memory
* Clive Wearing: The Man with the 20 Second Memory But Retains His Procedural Memory
* Clive Wearing: (video - 1 min 6 sec) Even though Clive Wearing cannot remember people or events, his piano-playing skills are intact.
 
  Dr. David Eagleman is a neuroscientist. He explores the structure and function of the brain in order to understand the difference between conscious and unconscious thoughts. He also explores the brain to understand how we understand reality and questions if free will exists! All of these videos are extremely entertaining and educational.
* Brain Over Mind? // Dr. David Eagleman
* Synesthesia / Dr. Ealgleman
*
The Brain / How Do I Decide / Dr. Eagleman
* The Brain / Why Do I Need You / Dr. Eagleman
* The Brain / Who Will We Be / Dr. Eagleman
* TED Talk: Can We Create New Senses for Humans?
** Cup Stacking Champion with Dr. Eagleman
* About Religion - TED Talk
   
  Memory and Learning are examples of a "higher brain function" (i.e. in the same way that motor control is a type of higher brain function). How the brain learns, remembers, and retrieves memories are all "unsettled science", however. Scientists are working everyday to unlock the mysteries. We know learning and memory occurs fundamentally in the brain at the synaptic level. There are at least two types of memories: declarative (which is explicit-conscious-hippocampus dependent) and procedural (implicit-unconscious-hippocampus independent - but amygdala - caudate - cerebellum dependent). The following review articles (in conjunction with the HHMI resources) will give you a good introduction to the fundamental principles of memory and learning.
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Memory Consolidation
* Molecular Memory
** Types of Memories
* Explicit VS Implicit Memories
* Explicit Memory
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Implicit Memory
   
  Dr. Robert Sapolsky Explains the Link Between Biology and Behavior // Dr. Sapolsky is a neuroscientist and primatologist at Standford Univeristy. Dr. Sapolsky is celebrated as a "SCIENCE ROCK STAR"! I hope you make time to watch some of his lectures and to learn from a true genius. He won the MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works
* Introduction to Human Behavior (1 hour)
* Behavioral Evolution (1:37)
* Behavioral Evolution II (1:37)
* Our Best and Worst Self - TED Talk (15 min)
** Our Best and Worst Self (1 hour 13 minutes) - Complete lecture on this topic.
* Are Humans Just Another Primate? (1:16)
 
  A Brain Tuned Perfectly for Making Music // Musical History is Being Made in Our Time - What can we learn about our brain structure and function from Alma?
** Alma Deutscher's BBC Interview
* The Henley Festival Interview
* Alma Deutscher: The Mystery of a Perfect Brain Expressed in Music
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Alma Deutscher Plays Slow Movement From Her New New Piano Concerto
* Alma Deutscher Third Movement Violin Concerto - Romania
* Alma playing Mozart piano concerto K.246, with cadenza by Alma Deutscher (2015)
* Cinderella by Alma Deutscher and conducted by Alma Deutsher (2023)
* A Wunderkid Comes of Age (2023)
   
  A special thank you to www.wondermoms.org These are compassionate women who provide love and care for autistic children.
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What is autism?
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How to calm a child with autism.
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How to create a sensory safe backyard landscape for your autistic child with special needs
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Estate planning for parents of autistic children
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Classroom accomodations for children with sensory issues
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Moving with kids with autisim
   

Chapter 15
The Autonomic Nervous System and Visceral Reflexes
 

 
Lecture Slides / Preview Slides Before Class
* Autonomic Nervous System // Adrenergic and Cholinergic Receptors // Neurotransmitters
   
Chapter Study Guide (Bring Questions to Lecture)
* C15 Learning Objectives
   
Required Assignments (videos marked with ( >)
Homework Video Questions - Print PDF
> ANS: Sympathetic VS Parasympathetic - 5 min
> Neurotrnsmitters in the Autonomic Nervous System Explained - 17 min
> Opiod Addiction - Addiction and Overdose - Part Two (16 min)
> Addiction 101 Dr. Waller MD MS (23 min)
> Seratonin VS Dopamine or What is the difference between pleasure and happiness? (10 min)
> Do we have free will? by Robert Sapolski (8 min)
 
Chapter Audio Review / Highly Recommended
* Peripheral Nervous System
   
The following content is NOT REQUIRED, however. It does correlate to C13's learning objectives. This information is included only for the curious!
   
* Under Pressure: The Search for a Stress Vaccine (Dr. R. Sapolsky / Stanford U)
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*
   

Chapter 16
Introduction to Sense Organs and the Special Senses
 

 
Lecture Slides / Preview Slides Before Class.
*
Introduction to Sense Organs
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Vission
*
Hearing and Equlibrium
* Pain
   
Chapter Study Guide
* C16 Learning Objectives
   
Required Assignments (videos marked with ( >)
Homework Video Questions - Print PDF
> How hearing works (1.5 min)
> Hearing - (1:10 min)
> Effect of Sound Waves on the Cochlear Structure - (1:15 min)
> Vision - (45 sec)
> How the eye works animaiton (3:22 min)
>
What happens inside your eye (8 min)
> The Savant Brain (10 min)
> Ten Special Savants (8 min)
   
Chapter Audio Review / Highly Recommended
* Sense Organs
   
The following content is NOT REQUIRED, however. It does correlate to C13's learning objectives. This information is included only for the curious!
   
* Pain: Spinal Gating - Not Covered on Exam
* Scream Audio
*
Taste - Video
* Synethesia: When Sound, Numbers, and Letters Are Perceived as Color
** Synesthesia
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Rotating Mask Illusion (What and where is reality?)
** What mouse is standing on the darker square?
**
Rotating Mask Illusion (2)
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** Checker Board Illustion Interactive Site
* Chess Board
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** Clip From "Prof. Robert Sapolsky on the Neurobiology of Primate Sexuality" (6 min)
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Tunnel Vission
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Eye Color
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A Checker Board and Your Perception of Reality // Print "Checker Board"
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Super Toxic Snake Venom Yields New Pain Killer
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Baby Talk
* Aphasia
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Chapter 17
Endocrine System
 
 
Lecture Slides / Preview Slides Before Class
 
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* The Pituitary Gland and Other Endocrine Tissues
* Stress
   
Chapter Study Guide
* C17 Endocrine Structure and Function
* C17 Endocrine Hormones w anwsers
   
Required Assignments (videos marked with( >)
Homework Video Questions - Print PDF
>
>
> The Endocrine System (5 min)
> What Causes Diabetes (6 min).
   
Chapter Audio Review / Highly Recommended
* Endocrine System
   
 
The following content is NOT REQUIRED, however. It does correlate to C13's learning objectives. This information is included only for the curious!
   
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* Under Pressure: The Search for a Stress Vaccine (R. Sapolsky)
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Select NSAID (Are these drugs safe?)
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* Diabetes: History of the Discovery of Insulin
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Mood Drugs - CRH Functions in Brain
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* Pathophysiology of Stress
   
Lecture: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4 ////////////Lab: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4