Physiology Unit Two (C12 - C17)
Unit Two Lecture Objectives // Dictionary of Pronunciation // Medical Dictionary

 
Chapter 12: Nervous Tissue
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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Second Messenger Transmembrane Signaling
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* Neural Network: Image No Text / Image With Text
* Audio Review / Nervous System Cells
   
Study Guides for Advanced Learners / Not Required
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C12 - Chapter Learning Outcomes
   
Test Your Knowledge (Game) // Not Required
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Articles of Interest / Not Required
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* More Articles of Interest // Indexed by Subject
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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* Pathophysiology: The Nervous System (179 lecture slides)
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About the videos below: The Howard Hughes Medical Institute sponsored a lecture series called Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory. Two world renowned neuro-scientist, Dr. Thomas Jessell, PhD. and Dr. Eric Kandel MD, gave four lectures. Dr. Kandel won the Nobel Prize in Medicine (Physiology) in 2000 for his work on synaptic consolidation (memory). The four links below are one hour long lectures. Other links to HHMI resources are provided throughout Unit 2 Chapters. These four videos are highly recommended for all students.
* Making Your Mind: Molecules, Motion, and Memory (58 min)
Dr. Eric Kandel M.D. (Nobel Prize in Medicine 2000)
* Molecular Logic of Neural Curcuits (How a nerve cell gets its identity, sends axons, and makes connections with other cells.) // Dr. Jessel
* How the Spinal Cord Controls Movement // Dr. Jessel
* Memories Are Made of This // Dr. Eric Kandel
   
* Measuring neuronal activity, generating action potentials, and recording the firing of individual neurons // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Genes associated with autism affect the structure and function of neuronal synapses. // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Learning Between a Sensory and Motor Neuron
   

 
Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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* Audio Review / Central Nervous System
   
Study Guides / Not Required
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Test Your Knowledge (Game) // Not Required
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Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
* Spinal Cord Injury // Complete TranSection, Spinal Shock, and Herniated Disc
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Golgi Tendon Organ (not to be confused with the Golgi Apparatus)
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* Demo: Proprioception Makes Raising a Mug Easy // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Demo: Raising Mug Without Proprioception // Howard Hughes Medical Institute
* Ian Waterman: In the absence of proprioception and visual feedback, it is impossible to touch thumb to fingers accurately.
* Ian Waterman: Able to use visual sytems to compensate for loss of proprioception.
   

 
Chapter 14: The Brain and Cranial Nerves
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
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Introduction to the Brain
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Brain Meninges & Cerebro Spinal Fluid
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Functions of the Medulla, Pons, Thalamus, Hypothalamus, Cerebrum, and Cerebellum
 
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Motor Pathways
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Limbic System: Understanding the Emotional Brain (1:28 video)
* The Amygdala in Five Minutes
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The Limbic system (10 min video)
* The Savant Brain
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How the Brain Constructs Reality
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Fiber tracks in the brain are axons that connect integrating centers. This is how these fiber tracks are classified: 1) The commissural tracks connect integrating centers horizontally between the two cerebral hemispheres 2) Association tracks connect integrating centers in same hemisphere which maybe either long and short. Therefroe, they connect grey matter between gyrus within same lobe (short) or between different lobes (long) 3) Projection fibers connect integrating centers along a vertical axis(e.g. the cerebrum to the brain stem). We can see these tracks using MRI Diffuse Tensor Imaging. /// Image 1 / Image 2 / Image 3 / Image 4
* Neural Network: Image No Text / Image With Text
* Audio Review / Central Nervous System
   
Study Guides / Not Required
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Test Your Knowledge (Game) / Not Required
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Articles of Interest / Not Required
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The Brain: 1) Evolutionary Layers of the Human Brain // 2) The Two Pathways of Fear // 3) The Pleasure Center // 4) The Reward Circuit
* The Triune Brain Theory // Three Stages of Brain Evolution
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Limbic System and Concept of Historical Evolution
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Language Processing in the Brain
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* Vertigo
   
  The mapping of brain function was originally developed by loss of brain tissue which resulted from war, industrial accidents, or disease. Upon examinatin of the brain after death, investigators correlated the damaged tissue to loss of function. Today, we can exam brain function in living test subjects using technology like fMRI, PET, and CT.
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Phineas Gage: Frontal Lobe Loss
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Henry Molaison: Absence of New Declarative Memory
* Clive Wearing: Man with the 20 Second Memory but Procedural Memory Intact
 
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
 
 
Dr. David Eagleman is a neuroscientist. He explores the structure and function of the brain in order to understand the difference between conscious and unconscious thoughts. He also explores the brain to understand how we understand reality and to question if free will actually exist! All of these videos are extremely entertaining and educational.
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The Brain / How the Brain Works / PBS Nova
* What Makes Me / Dr. Eagleman
* Who is in Control? / Dr. Eagleman
* Synesthesia / Dr. Ealgleman
* Who Will We Be / Dr. Ealgleman
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The Brain / How Do I Decide / Dr. Eagleman
* The Brain / Why Do I Need You / Dr. Eagleman
* The Brain / Who Will We Be / Dr. Eagleman
* TED Talk: Can We Create New Senses for Humans?
   
* Memory Hackers: Scientists are learning how we can edit memories—and delete our worst fears.
   
 
Memory and Learning are examples of a "higher brain function" (i.e. in the same way that motor control is a type of higher brain function). How the brain learns, remembers, and retrieves memories are all unsettled science, however. Scientists are working everyday to unlock the mysteries. We know learning and memory occurs fundamentally in the brain at the synapse. There are at least two types of memories: declarative (which is explicit - conscious - hippocampus dependent) and procedural (implicit - unconscious - hippocampus independent - but amygdala - caudate - cerebellum dependent). The following review articles (in conjunction with the HHMI resources) will give you a good introduction to the fundamentals of memory and learning.
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Memory Consolidation
* Molecular Memory
* Types of Memories
* Explicit VS Implicit Memories
* Explicit Memory
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Implicit Memory
* Clive Wearing: (1 min 6 sec) Even though Clive Wearing cannot remember people or events, his piano-playing skills are intact.
   

 
Chapter 15: The Autonomic Nervous System
 

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Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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* Audio Review / Peripheral Nervous System
   
Study Guides / Not Required
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Test Your Knowledge (Game) // Not Required
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Articles of Interest / Not Required
* Under Pressure: The Search for a Stress Vaccine (Dr. R. Sapolsky / Stanford U)
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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Chapter 16: Sensory, Motor, and Integrative Systems
 

Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
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Introduction to Sense Organs
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Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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Synesthesia: Living Color
   
Study Guides / Not Required
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Articles of Interest / Not Required
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Super Toxic Snake Venom Yields New Pain Killer
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Baby Talk
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Aphasia
   
Test Your Knowledge (Game) // Not Required
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Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
* Pain: Spinal Gating
   

Chapter 17: The Special Senses

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Vission
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Hearing and Equlibrium
   
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
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Hearing - Video
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Taste - Video
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Vision - Video
* Synesthesia
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Rotating Mask Illusion (What and where is reality?)
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Rotating Mask Illusion (2)
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* Chess Board
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Study Guides / Not Required
* C17 Learning Objectives
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
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A Checker Board and Your Perception of Reality // Print "Checker Board"
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Synethesia: When Sound, Numbers, and Letters Are Perceived as Color
   
Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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* Conduction Aphagia: This patient can both comprehend and articulate language, but cannot verbalize what is a clear idea in her mind. The fascicles between Broca and Wernekie areas are broken.
   

 
Chapter 18: Endocrine System
 
 
Lecture Slides /Matched to Learning Objectives
 
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The Pituitary Gland and Other Endocrine Tissues
   
 
Homework Assignments / Highly Recommended
 
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* Audio Review / Endocrine System
 
Study Guides
* C18 Learning Objectives (answers)
* C18 Required Hormones: origin - target tissue - function.
   
Articles of Interest / Not Required
* Under Pressure: The Search for a Stress Vaccine (R. Sapolsky)
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Select NSAID (Are these drugs safe?)
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Mood Drugs - CRH Functions in Brain
   
Test Your Knowledge (Game) // Not Required
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Topics of Interest / Not Required / Recommended for Advanced Learners
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* Pathophysiology of Stress
   
Lecture: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4 ////////////Lab: Unit 1 - Unit 2 - Unit 3 - Unit 4