Anatomy and Physiology Student Resources
Cliff Belleau / Adjunct Instructor at Macomb County Community College

Physiology: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4 /// Anatomy: Unit 1 / Unit 2 / Unit 3 / Unit 4

gDrawings by Leonardo da Vinci  /  Renaissance Artist & Scientist (1452 - 1519)

  Message Board
Fall Semester 2018
  11/16 - Great job on the Unit Three Exam! There were many high scores. Unfortunately, there were also a few low scores. If you find yourself on the wrong end of this grading scale then please network with top performing students to join their study groups. Remember, success is only achieved if you are prepared for an opportunity (i.e. the exams are "opportunities"). Remember, it's all about time on task. So find a way so make more time to learn the essential learning objectives.  
  I can have a great holiday and still prepare for my Unit Four Exam!  
  11/16 - Use the holiday break to prepare for the Unit Four Exam! Your goal should be to review all the unit four power-point slides and complete all the chapter study guide questions before you come back to school from your holiday break. If you do this then this will set you up for better than average results on the Unit Four Exam.  
  11/16 - I have reviewed power-point slides for C24-C25 and I have highlighted the most important slides with a "red star". These slides correlate to the learning objectives and hot list questions. There are approximately 150 slides and 45 slides are marked with a red star.
  11/16 - I have review Study Guides for C26 and C27 and these are now posted. I will review Study Guides for C24, C25, and C28 over the weekend and I will have these study guides posted by Sunday.  
  9/6 - It is all about Time on Task. In order to learn all the lecture and lab learning objectives, you will need to study two to three hours per day, seven days a week. Remember, this "study time" is an "investment in your future". The Roman poet Horace said famously, "Carpe diem" . (i.e. seize the day or "one should do all one can today to make one's future better). Carpe diem!  

Throughout the course, I will use this space to post important messages. You will need to check the "Message Board" often for updates and corrections. So welcome to my AP class. My objectives are to help you learn physiology and to help you advance your career goal. I wish all of my students "Good Luck". Here is another "key idea" often quoted;

"The harder I worked, the luckier I got", Henry Ford, founder of the Ford Motor Car Company.

> WileyPLUS Registration Instructions (AP C1625 or AP C1627)  
> MC3 Library Hours (F2018)  



Important Notes:

Research by the Michigan Educational Association found that a student needs to "study" three hours for each hour in a class lecture. So this then suggest just how much time you need to budget to learn the lecture material in this AP class. You will need a minimum of 12 hours study time per week or approximately two hours per day, seven days per week. Remember, this also includes the days when you are in class!

Research also tells us that it is more beneficial if you study daily instead of skipping several days and then trying to "make up the time" on the weekend by studying six or eight hours. There is scientific evidence to support this idea based on "synaptic memory consolidation, memory recall, and memory re-consolidation theories". We know recalling stored information reinforces "the memory trace" which is a nerve pathway established in our brains from the first time we place the information (i.e. the factoid) into our memory. Recall and re-consolidation (i.e. retrieving and replacing the memory) reinforces the synaptic connections along the memory trace. This is how our brains works! So if we hope to benefit from scientific knowledge, then we need to use knowledge to change our behavior in our daily life.

  In The News:  
> French school children head back to school without their cell phones, smart phones, and tablets. (link to article)  
> How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds - If you are smart then you will read this article. If you are wise then you will leave your phones at home when you come to school. "Students who didn't bring their phones to the classroom scored a full letter-grade higher on a test of the material presented than those who brought their phones to class."  
> Laptop Multi-tasking Hinders Classroom Learning for Users and Nearby Peers -- "Seeking Best Practices in Teaching" means a willingness to apply knowledge to ensure the best possible outcome for your students. This article is my justification for prohibiting laptop computers in my lectures. You can use laptop computers in lab. The "How Smart-phones Hijack Our Minds" is the justification for my cell phone policy. Sometimes science is inconvenient and in conflict with your personal wishes; but science seeks the truth. I hope you will read the smart-phone and laptop computer articles. These articles are neuroscience and also "best practices".  
> Malady Mongers: How Drug Companies Sell Treatments by Inventing Diseases  
> Update 2018: Why Is Healthcare So Expensive in United States?  
> America's Health Care Comes in Last Again - Most Expensive and Delivers Worst Outcomes  
> Recent events in Flint, Michigan have again illustrated a failure at the intersection of science and public policy. This has resulted in catastrophic consequences. Here are two review articles about lead that you may want to read: Lead Poisoning // Correlation Between Lead Poisoning and Crime  

Zika - An Emerging Disease: This is a good example of what happens when the world ignores an emerging disease until it becomes a potential global pandemic. The catastrophe is only further fueled by the USA congress who now stay on their summer vacations while refusing to provide necessary funding for scientific research necessary to solve the Zika problem. Unfortunately, history often repeats its failures!


  Links to Resources About Health Care & Other Topics of Special Interest
for Anatomy and Physiology Students
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention  
The CDC should be your first source for information about disease and wellness. This site is designed to provide valuable healthcare information to physicians as well as to the general public. The CDC also reports on emerging diseases around the world and in the United States.
  National Institutes of Health  
The National Institutes of Health (NIH), a part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, is the nation’s medical research agency — making important discoveries that improve health and save lives. The NIH is made up of 27 different components called Institutes and Centers. For over a century, NIH scientists have paved the way for important discoveries that improve health and save lives.
  American Council on Science & Health  
The American Council on Science and Health was founded in 1978 by a group of scientists with a singular mission – to provide an evidence-based counterpoint to the wave of anti-science claims that became the calling card of fundraising groups who were using mass media to promote fear about topics such as food, energy and medicine. These scientists created an organization that could add data and reason to debates about science and public health issues and to provide that data to policy makers and the public. ACSH is a national, non-profit, tax-exempt 501(c)(3) education and advocacy organization based in New York City.
  Food and Drug Administration  

FDA is an agency within the Department of Health and Human Services. The FDA's organization consists of the Office of the Commissioner and four directorates overseeing the core functions of the agency: Medical Products and Tobacco, Foods, Global Regulatory Operations and Policy, and Operations.

  Kaiser Family Foundation  
Kaiser is a non-profit organization focusing on national health issues, as well as the U.S. role in global health policy.  Unlike grant-making foundations, Kaiser develops and runs its own policy analysis, journalism and communications programs, sometimes in partnership with major news organizations. We serve as a non-partisan source of facts, analysis and journalism for policymakers, the media,  the health
policy community and the public. Our product is information, always provided free of charge — from the most sophisticated policy research, to basic facts and numbers, to in depth health policy news coverage provided by our news service, KHN, to information young people can use to improve their health or the general public can use to understand the health reform law. Our core mission is filling the need for trusted information about Health Issues
PharMedOut is a Georgetown University Medical Center project that advances evidence-based prescribing and educates healthcare professionals about pharmaceutical marketing practices. PharMedOut promotes evidence-based medicine by providing slideshows, videos, events, and links to pharma-free CME courses. (Founded by Dr. Adriane Fugh-Berman)
"In Sick Around the World, Frontline teams up with veteran Washington Post foreign correspondent T.R. Reid to find out how five other capitalist democracies --(United Kingdom, Japan, Germany, Taiwan and Switzerland) -- deliver health care, and what the United States might learn from their successes and their failures." April 15, 2008   Follow this link:
Their mission is to educate citizens about the benefits of a Single-Payer National Health Program. The U.S. spends twice as much as other industrialized nations on health care, $8,160 per capita. Yet our system performs poorly in comparison and still leaves 50.7 million without health coverage and millions more inadequately covered. This is because private insurance profits, unnecessary bureaucracy and paperwork over electronic documents consume one-third (31 percent) of every health care dollar.

Greg Silver, MD
(Note: the new Health Care Reform Act now mandates that a health insurance company spends a higher percent of your health care premium for health care services and if they don't spend the premium for medical services then they must rebate that money to the insured. However, it is still less fair than what other industrial countries do with their national healther care programs.) Streamlining payment through a single nonprofit payer would save more than $400 billion per year, enough to provide comprehensive, high-quality coverage for all Americans. Follow this Link to Visit PNHP's Web Site
Lectures by Dr. Robert Sapolsky, The John A. and Cynthia Fry Gunn
Professor of Biological Sciences and Neurology at Stanford University

Dr. Robert Sapolsky is a Professor of Biology, Neurosurgery, Neurology & Neurological Sciences at Stanford University.  You can now attend Professor Sapolsky eclectic lectures online.   These inspirational lectures cover complex normal and abnormal behaviors. Furthermore, they show us how we can integrate disciplines like sociobiology, ethology, neuroscience, and endocrinology to examine behaviors such as aggression, sexual behavior, language use, and mental illness. After you watch these lectures, you will understand why Professor Sapolsky was voted by his students to be the best teacher at Stanford University.

The Limbic System

Link to 41 Lectures by Dr. Sapolsky
Stanford University

Robert Sapolsky won a MacArthur Fellowship in 1987 (i.e. the Genius Award!) for his creative breakthrough in understanding how the brain works, and in particular how prolonged stress can cause both physical and mental health problems. Author of seven bestselling books including A Primate’s Memoir and Why Zebras Don’t Get Ulcers, he has made annual trips to Africa for the past twenty three years to study a population of wild baboons and the relationships between their personalities and patterns of stress-related diseases. One of the nation’s top biologists, he is also a wry humanist, and reminds us: “If a rat is a good model for your emotional life, you’re in trouble.”

  How Bacteria Talk
by Dr. Bonnie Bassler, Princeton University

Bonnie Bassler studies how bacteria can communicate with one another, through chemical signals, to act as a unit. Her work could pave the way for new, more potent medicine.

In 2002, bearing her microscope on a microbe that lives in the gut of fish, Bonnie Bassler isolated an elusive molecule called AI-2, and uncovered the mechanism behind mysterious behavior called quorum sensing -- or bacterial communication. She showed that bacterial chatter is hardly exceptional or anomalous behavior, as was once thought -- and in fact, most bacteria do it, and most do it all the time. (She calls the signaling molecules "bacterial Esperanto.")



The discovery shows how cell populations use chemical powwows to stage attacks, evade immune systems and forge slimy defenses called biofilms. For that, she's won a MacArthur "genius" grant -- and is giving new hope to frustrated pharmacos seeking new weapons against drug-resistant superbugs.

Bassler teaches molecular biology at Princeton, where she continues her years-long study of V. harveyi, one such social microbe that is mainly responsible for glow-in-the-dark sushi. She also teaches aerobics at the YMCA.

“She's really the one who's shown that this is something that all these bacteria are doing all the time. And if we want to understand them, we have to understand quorum sensing.” — Ned Wingreen, Princeton, on Nova ScienceNOW -- Go To TED Talk


Thirty cents of every dollar spent on U.S. health care -- a total of $750 billion -- was wasted in 2009 on unnecessary services, excessive administrative costs, fraud and other problems, according to the Institute of Medicine. It's enough to cover every uninsured American six times over. What else could it buy? ss
The 2009 H1N1 "Swine" Influenza" was our most recent "near-miss" pandemic. When will it be back? Why are scientists terrified about the H5N1 virus? Why do some scientist believe the H5N1 virus may kill worldwide more than a billion people? Why are newborns and senior citizens more likely to survive a flu pandemic? ss
 "Nothing great was ever achieved without enthusiasm".   Henry David Thoreau